LANDMARKS OF WORLD HISTORY
A Chronology of Remarkable Natural Phenomena

The Middle Ages, 1001-1500

Numbers show sources

Date
Location
Phenomenon
Description


1001
Switzerland
Earthquake
With 'igneous meteors’. (80)

1002 September 14
Morocco
Meteor
Bright as Moon. (56)

1004
Campania, Italy
Earthquake
Many buildings fell. Year may be 1005. (80)

1006 May 6
China, Arabia
Supernova
'Like half Moon’, in Centaurus; visible 2 years.’ ‘Sky was shining' by its light. (35)

1007
'Deinar in Irak'
Earthquake
10,000 buried. Snow in Baghdad. (80)

1009
India
Meteorite
'Iron-fall' at Djorjam. Weight 2,000 lbs. (56)

1009 April 29
Germany
Obscuration
'Coloured cloud' hid Sun for 2 days. (87)

1010
Angouleme
Aurora?
A cross ‘the colour of fire’ in S. at midnight. (42)

1011
Europe, Egypt
Cold
Severe winter. Ice on the Nile. (73)

1011
Lorraine
Meteor
Burning torch like tower. Great noise.

1013 March 16
Morocco
Meteor
Brighter than Moon, with tail. (56)

1013 May 15
Quedlinburg, Germany
Storm
Tempest destroyed buildings. Possible tornado. (87, 121)

1014 September 28
England
Sea flood
'Countless numbers' drowned. (25)

1018 August 4
China
Comet
Tail 30 cubits long. (116)

1020
Unknown
Meteor?
‘Flames fell from the heavens like a tower” (7)

1020 July/August
North Africa
Meteorites?
Many stones, several killed. Hailstones? (56)

1021
Ireland
Fall
Shower of wheat at Osraighe. (89)

1021 May 12
South Germany
Earthquake
Swiss well-water turned blood-colour. Floods. Igneous meteors. Year 1020? (80)

1022 summer
Ireland
Hail
Lightning and hail the size of wild apples destroyed men and cattle. (89)

1029
Damascus
Earthquake
Half of the city ruined. (80)

1029 August
Cairo, Egypt
Meteors
'Many stars passed’ with a great noise. (82)

1030 August 31
Norway
Pearl-ring solar eclipse
Eclipse during battle of Stiklarstadir (traditional date of battle July 29). (65)

1034
Palestine
Earthquake
Walls of Jerusalem fell. Villages engulfed. (28)

1034 September 20
China
Comet
A bright comet. (116)

1035 June 21
England
Summer cold
A frost on Midsummer Day. Crops killed. (94)

1036
Italy
Volcano
Eruption of Vesuvius lasted till 1038. Lava ran into sea. (102)

1037 December 18
Buccellariis
Earthquake
5 villages engulfed. (80)

1038 January 9
Shensi, China
Earthquake
Over 20,000 killed.

1043 (c)
Palestine
Earthquake
Tebris, Tadhmor and Baalbeck wrecked. 40,000 killed. (28)

1046 February
England
Cold
Severe winter. Snow and tempests. (4)

1047 December 8
Ireland
Snow
Great snow till March 17. (89)

1048
England
Earthquake
Throughout England. (4)

1048 January
England
Snow
Snow lay until March 17. (25)

1048 or 1049 May 1
England
Earthquake
A shock in Worcester, Derby, etc. (43)

1053 December 21
England
Gale
Churches and houses fell. (25)

1054 April 24
Rossdalla, Ireland
Tornado
'Tower of fire' surrounded by ‘birds’. First definite tornado, Europe. (89, 95)

1054 July 5
China
Supernova
Crab Nebula supernova at maximum brightness. (35)

1057
Chihli, China
Earthquake
25,000 killed. (80)

1058
Italy
Lunar event?
Bright light in new Moon. Year may be 1086. (87)

1058
Mesopotamia
Earthquake
Great damage Many killed. (3)

1063 April
Europe
Blizzard
Wind and snow for 4 days. Cattle and birds killed. (105)

1064
China
Meteorite?
Fireball burned fences, Ch’ang-chou.

1064 September 23
Asia Minor
Earthquake
A shock in Thrace, Nicaea, etc. (80)

1066 March 23
China, Europe
Halley's Comet
Perihelion, 15 cubits long. (4, 27, 89, 116)

1067 August 11
England
Earthquake
Terrified whole country. (57)

1067 December 6
Northumbria, England
Tornado?
Revolving 'sign' illuminated earth. Woods and plains burned. (25)

1068 March 18
Palestine
Earthquake
Ramla and Haila wrecked, 25,000 killed. (28)

1076
Denmark
Meteorites?
A stone-fall. (56)

1076 November
Europe
Cold
Severe winter Nov. to April. Rhine frozen. 4½ months' frost in France. (9)

1077
China
Sunspot
Black spot the size of a plum on Sun. (63)

1078
China
Sunspot
A black spot the size of a plum on the Sun. (63)

1079
China
Sunspot
A black spot the size of a plum on the Sun. (63)

1081 December 25
England
Earthquake
All over England. Terrible noise. (57)

1082 December 6
Constantinople
Earthquake
Many buildings fell. Year may be 1083. (80)

1083 October 18
Central France?
Earthquake
Church was burned.’ Volcanic fire'? (80)

1086
Sicily
Earthquake
Many killed in Syracuse. (80)

1086 November ll
Germany
Cold
Rhine frozen until April 1. (105)

1087 September 23 or 26
Brauweiler
Aurora
Sky ‘terrifyingly inflamed’. (42)

1089 August 11
England
Earthquake
Throughout country. (57)

1090 November
London
Flood
London Bridge destroyed. Banks flooded. (25)

1091 September 17
Antioch
Earthquake
70 towers fell from walls. (28)

1091 September 29
Europe?
Obscuration
Sun-darkening for 3 hours. Sun had 'peculiar colour' after. (61)

1091 October 21
London
Tornado
600 houses wrecked, 2 killed. (96, 121)

1092
Britain
Sea floods
Many towns flooded, Scotland and England. (25)

1092 April
England
Earthquake
‘Hideous roaring’ in London. (57)

1092 June 26
Hungary
Earthquakes
3 shocks in one day. (87)

1092 winter
England and Ireland
Cold winter
Rivers frozen; thaw carried away bridges. (89, 94)

1093 April 10
Paris
Fall
'Glowing substance' found after shooting stars. (56)

1094
England
Aurora? Meteors?
‘Hosts fighting in the air, flashes of fire, stars falling”. (62)

1095
Ireland
Heat
'Year of the heat’. Many killed. (25)

1095 January 3
Ireland
Snow
Great snow . Multitudes killed. (25)

1095 April 4
England
Meteor shower
Many 'stars' fell all night. (4, 82))

1096
Unknown
Sunspots
Visible to naked eye. (122)

1096 August 6
Europe?
Lunar event?
Bright light on Moon in lunar eclipse. (14)

1097 September 27
Europe
Aurora?
“Inflamed path’ (via ignea) in sky all night. (41)

1097 September 29
England
Aurora?
A sign like a 'burning cross’. Possible comet. (25)

1097 October 4
England, China
Comet
Stream of light in S.W. Seen 15 days. (4, 116)

1097 November 21
Edessa
Aurora
Clear sky coloured red. Seen for month. (17)

1098 September 27
Antioch, England
Aurora
Blaze of light girdled Pole.’ Unusual light' at night, Durham. (17, 25))

1099 November 11
England
Sea flood
Great damage. Also in Flanders. (4, 74)

1104
Iceland
Volcano
First known eruption of Hekla. 16 farms lost. Ash fell in Scandinavia. (13, 111)

1104
China
A black spot the size of a date on the Sun. (63)

1104 June 7
England
Halo complex
4 white circles round Sun at noon. (4)

1105 (or 1106?)
Malamocco Is.
Earthquake
Island engulfed by sea off Italy. (80, 82)

1106 February 12
Europe
Sun-darkening
Accompanied by meteors. Comet near Sun

1106 February 14
Europe
Comet
Shining ray at sunset. Seen 40 days. (4, 58, 61, 108, 116)

1107 March 23
Ireland
Snow
Fell a day and night. Many cattle killed. (25)

1108
Syria
Aurora?
Light like Sun at night for 3 hours. (41)

1108 April 4
Syria
Obscuration
Day 'darkness like dust’. Lasted 12 days. (87)

1109
Antioch
Earthquake
Houses swallowed up. (80)

1110
Armenia
Meteor?
'Burning object' fell in Lake Van. Waters turned blood red. (30)

1110 June 8
England
Comet
Visible 3 weeks. (4)

1111 June 7
Liege, Belgium
Cloudburst
Flood washed away houses and people. Lightning struck church next day. (9)

1112
Italy
Meteorite?
A stone-fall at Trieste. (56)

1112 January 3
Germany
Earthquake
Rothenburg on the Necker overthrown. Liége flooded by Meuse. (80)

1112 June 20
Italy
Meteor?
'Very bright star' seen. (87)

1113 March 17
Ireland
Ball lightning?
30 killed by 'ball of fire’.

1113 June 1
Christchurch, England
Ball lightning?
Sulphurous five-headed ‘dragon’ burned church and town.

1114 May
England
Comet
'Star' with long rays. Seen many nights. (4)

1114 October 10
England
Dessication
Thames and Medway dry due to low tide. (25)

1115 January - March
Ireland
Severe winter
‘Boisterous weather’, frost and snow. “Great destruction of cattle, birds, and men”. (89)

1115 December 25 (c.)
Middle East
Earthquake
Jerusalem, Antioch, etc.. Great damage. (80)

1116 December 21 (c)
Germany
Paraselene?
2nd moon rose in the W. as full Moon rose. (87)

1117
Swabia
Subsidence
Earth boiled up, then collapsed. (87)

1117 January 4
Lombardy
Earthquake
Many buildings thrown down. (4)


1117 December 16
Chartres, France
Aurora
N. sky like fire at night, with white beam. (16)

1118
Ireland
Earthquake
Many cities destroyed. Much loss of life. (57)

1118
China
Sunspot
A black spot the size of a plum on the Sun. (63)

1118
Brittany
Gale?
‘High winds’ destroyed buildings. On May 1, 1118, the city of Nantes was burnt down-not known if two events are linked

1118 December 20
Europe
Aurora
'Fiery ranks' in night sky. Moved N. to E. (41)

1119 July 20
Prague
Tornado
Part of King’s palace destroyed by a ‘swirl’. (104)

1120 September 28
England
Earthquake
Houses wrecked. People buried. (57)

1121 May
Syria
Aurora
'A full arc' appeared at night. (41)

1122 December 7
England
Aurora?
Fire in N.E. sky at dawn until daylight. (4)

1125 August 10
England
Flood
Many towns deluged. Men drowned. (4)

1127
Tyre
Earthquake
Earth opened, many killed. Year may be 1128. (80)

1128 December 8
England
Sunspots
Two very large spots: first known illustration. (32)

1129 January
Syria
Aurora
Fire in N. Also in March and April. (41)

1129
Ireland
Heat
Torrid summer. Streams dried up. (25)

1130 October 8
Bohemia
Meteor?
Flying 'serpent' at sunset. Seen from many places. (87)

1130 November
Syria
Aurora
Fiery 'mountain' in N. Later like pillars. (41)

1131
China
Sunspot
'Plum' sized spot . Visible 4 days. (63)

1131 January 11
England
Aurora
'Fire' in N. sky at night. (4)

1132 October 7
China, Japan
Comet
Comet with tail 45 degrees long, visible all night

1133
Italy
Cold winter
River Po frozen from Cremona to the sea. (82)

1133 August 2
Europe
Solar eclipse
Seen England, Salzburg, Cambrai, Prague, etc. Corona seen, Salzburg? (4, 70, 107)

1133 August 4
England
Earthquake
Buildings overthrown. Fire from earth. (57, 62)

1134
Armenia
Earthquake
Dogodoph ruined. (80)

1134 October 1
England, Holland
Sea flood?
Sea rose and flooded coast, then retired. (80)

1135
Germany
Meteorite
A head-sized black stone fell at Oldisleben. (60)

1135 March 7
Prague
Halo complex
4 circles round Sun. Many false suns. (108)

1135 July 21
Syria
Bolide
'Torch' from W. to E., then explosion. (41)

1136
Germany
Aurora?
Shining cross in sky. Brilliant. (41)

1136
Germany
Meteorite
A head-sized stone fell near Alsleben. Year 1135? (108)

1136
China
Sunspot
A black spot the size of a plum on the Sun. (63)

1137
Britain
Parhelia
Three red suns. (25)

1137
China
Sunspot
A black spot the size of a plum on the Sun. (63)

1137 May 15
Ireland
Gale
Forests and churches fell. (25)

1138? March 8
Asia Minor
Meteorites?
'Fiery coals' fell at Mosul. (56)

1138 June 5
Germany
Earthquake
30 shocks at Würzburg during a thunderstorm. (80)

1138 October 7
England
Aurora
Red sky in N. and coloured rays. (25)

1138 October 11
Middle East
Earthquake
130,000 killed. Strongest at Aleppo. 80 shocks in one night. (28)

1139
Bavaria
Sunspot?
A’ fissure' on the Sun.

1139 July 19
Prague
Obscuration
Darkness lasted a week. (87)

1140
Kalunikus
Subsidence
Earth opened and 40 horsemen swallowed up. Cries heard long after. (80)

1140 June 22
Syria
Aurora
Red lances in N. Moved W. (41)

1140 May 12
Wellsbourne, England
Tornado
Whirlwind wrecked 40 houses. Woman killed by hailstone. (96, 121)

1141 August
Syria
Aurora
Rays of fire in N. Bright on 2 Sept. (41)

1141 December 23
Korea
Aurora
Red vapour in N. at night. White rays. (119)

1144 May 14
Czechoslovakia
Tornadoes
Several ‘dark columns’ seen. “Strong vortex’. (118)

1145
China
Sunspots
Black shadows and spots on the Sun. (63)

1145 April 22
England, China
Halley's Comet
Perihelion. Seen 50 days. (116, 123)

1146 December 3
Ireland
Gale
Many woods destroyed. (25)

1147
Denmark
Aurora
Red flames in N. 1147-50. (41)

1147 January 9
China, Japan
Comet
“Broom star’ with tail 100 degrees long. (116)

1149
England
Tornado?
‘Horrible whirlwind’ overturned houses and destroyed forests. (25)

1149 December
England
Severe winter
Thames frozen. (25)

1149-1150
Baghdad
Earthquake
City shaken 10 times; mountain fell.

1152 March 22
North Holland
Lunar halo
Circle round Moon. Cross in circle. (87)

1153 January 26
Bologna, Italy
Parhelia
3 moons and cross, then 3 suns. (87)

1153 December 29
Cambrai
Meteor?
'Great splendour' at night, then thunder (87)

1154 February 15
Burgundy
Earthquake
Castle swallowed up. Deep pool left. (80)

1154 October 1
Europe
Obscuration
Serene sky suddenly darkened. Not an eclipse. (7)

1155
Antioch
Earthquake
Also Damascus, Tripoli. 2,000 killed. (80)

1155 winter
Italy and Sicily
Earthquake
An earthquake killed 5,000 persons in Sicily. (80)

1156
Ireland
Severe winter
‘Great snow’. Rivers and lakes frozen

1156 May 30?
Britain
Solar halo
Broad blue circle at noon. (25)

1156 August 11
England, France
Floods
Many buildings fell. Rain floods. (25)

1156 October
London
Lunar halo
A cross appeared in the Moon for several nights. (25)

1156 November 18
Syria
Earthquake
40 shocks at Aleppo. ‘Tremendous’. (28)

1158
London
Dessication
Thames dried up. Also an earthquake. (25)

1158
Syria
Earthquake
Many cities ruined. 15,000 killed. Year also given as 1159 and 1160. (80)

1158 August 28
Ireland
Aurora
'Great mount of fier’. Sparkled. (25)

1158 September-November
Ireland
Floods
Autumn rains and floods. 23 killed, Subha. (25)

1161
Europe
Sunspot
A sunspot observed by Averroes. (63)

1164 May 31
Germany
Meteorite
A large mass of iron fell at Meissen. (60)

1164 September 20
England
Solar haloes
3 circles round Sun. Then 2 suns. (62)

1165 August
England
Two comets
Before sunrise in S. and N. (117)

1165 August
Scarborough, England
Tornado?
Thunderstorm with 'black horse’. Horse’ left huge prints. (117)

1169 February 4 or 5
Catania, Sicily
Earthquake
15,000 killed. Etna erupted. (51, 80)

1170
Ireland
Aurora?
'Bow of burning fire’. (25)

1170 (c.)
Syria, etc.
Earthquake
Damascus, Emessa, Apamea, Aleppo, etc. Many houses fell. (28)

1170 March
England
Sea flood
Crops destroyed. (25)

1170 March 2
English Channel
Storm
Henry II's ship ‘troubled’. 400 drowned. (25)

1170 May 9
Italy
Earthquake
The walls of Ceccano thrown down. (80)

1170 June 29 (30?)
Europe & East
Earthquake
Syria, Libya, Hungary, Germany, Switzerland. Great damage, many killed. (93)

1171
Essex, England
Tornado??
Huge ‘dragon’ burned houses at St. Osyth. (115)

1171 December 24
England, Ireland
Thunderstorm
Lasted 2 days in Ireland. (62)

1171 December 25
Europe
'Stars'
Two great and small fiery 'stars' in W. (124)

1173 February 10
Ireland, England
Aurora
Red light in N. at night with white rays. (25)

1173 May 17
Wales
Tornado
Whirlwind, thunder, hail. Trees felled. (25)

1174 November 4
England
Aurora
Red sky in N. at midnight. (25)

1176 March 19
Korea
Aurora
Red vapour in W. at night. (119)

1176 April 3
England, France
Gale
Trees and houses felled. (1, 25)

1177 June 19
Isle of Wight
Coloured rain
'Dew of blood' fell for 2 hours. (67)

1177 July 22
England
Thunderstorm.
Hail broke trees. Many 'suffocated’. (67)

1177 November 29
England
Aurora
Burning flames at night. (25)

1177 December 1
England
Gale
E’ly gale. Woods and houses felled

1178 January 8
Lincolnshire
Sea flood
Men and cattle drowned. (25)

1178 June 18
Kent, England
Lunar meteor impact?
'Torch' sprang from crescent Moon. Moon then turned dark. (54, 62)

1179
Ireland
Snow
'The snow of destruction’.

1179 August 1
Europe
'Star'
'Star' near Sun. Venus near Moon. (87)

1180
W. Japan
Drought
Most rivers dried up. (10)

1180 April 25
England
Earthquake
Throughout Midlands. Many houses fell. (43)

1181 August 6
China
Supernova
In Cassiopeia. Bluish-red. (35)

1183
Syria
Earthquake
Many towns ruined. 20,000 killed. (80)

1184 February 17
Loch Ce, Ireland
Thunderstorm
Over 80 nobles and many others killed by lightning and flood. (25)

1185
Sicily
Earthquake
Cosenza destroyed. Adriatic sea wave. (58)

1185 April
China
Sunspot
A black spot the size of an egg on the Sun. (18, 63)

1185 April 15
England
Earthquake
Lincoln Cathedral rent. Many buildings damaged. (43, 57)

1185 May 1
Europe
Solar eclipse
'Red hot coals' on Moon. Prominences? (19, 70, 107)

1186
China
Sunspot
A black spot the size of an egg on the Sun. (63)

1186 June 30
Mons, Belgium
Meteorites
Several stones fell. Some of 1 pound. Year may be 1187. (56)

1187
Ireland
Lightning
Castle in Roscommon burned by lightning, 700 (or 140) persons killed. (89)


1187 October 14
England
Coloured rain
Blood-rain, Derbyshire. (125)

1187 December 20
Europe
Aurora
“Light of unusual splendour’ at night. (16)

1188 August 9
England
Halo phenomenon??
Cross in the air with ‘streams of blood’ at Dunstable, noon to evening. (62)

1189 May 4
Bohemia
Earthquake
Many buildings fell. 18 months of shocks. (80)

1190 May
Mainz, Germany
Hail
More than 100 villas devastated. Rain and floods all summer. (87)

1190 December
Sicily
Thunderstorm
Lightning sank galley, Messina; city walls fell. “Ball of fire’ on monastery pinnacle. (Roger de Hoveden)

1191
Ireland
Gale
Buildings and forests fell. Many killed. (25)

1192 January 15
Flanders
Aurora
‘Terrible fire’ in N. sky after sunset. (86)

1193
England
Earthquake
Buildings and trees levelled. (57)

1194 June 24
England
Halo complex
Circles round and through Sun,’rainbow’. 22° halo, parhelic circle and arc. (25)

1195 November
England
Gale
Buildings and trees fell. (25)

1196
Paris
Flood
Seine flood ‘swept away' all. (58)

1198 June 24
England?
Fall
'Dew sweet as honey' fell. In Europe? (25)

1198 July
France
Meteorites?
Stones fell near Paris

1198 July 20
England
Thunderstorms
Lightning destroyed villages and inhabitants. Hail killed birds and ruined crops

1198 November
England
Comet
Seen 15 days

1199
Scottish border
Floods
Bridges swept away. (62)

1200 (c)
Wales
Anomalous phenomenon
Large 'human footprints' on grass. Grass 'scorched as if by fire’. (58)

1200
Friesland
Sea flood
100,000 drowned.

1200
Italy
Meteorites
Stones fell from ‘inflamed cloud’ near Abdona. (45)

1200 September 9
Egypt
Flood
Nile flood failed. Famine and cannibalism followed. (131)

1200 December
York, England
Anomalous phenomena
5 'moons' seen; one 'moon' circled others. ‘ Moons’ with 'stars’. (62)

1201 (c)
Middle East
Earthquake
Egypt, Syria. Iraq, Armenia, Azerbaijan, &c. 1,100,000 lives lost (includes famine deaths when Nile flood failed). (28)

1201 June 24
England
Heat and drought
Harvest over on June 24. Continued July, Aug. (105)

1201 June 25
England
Thunderstorm
Violent rain caused floods. Contradicts previous. (58)

1202
China
Sunspot
Black spot the size of an egg on Sun. (63)

1202 May 20
Middle East
Earthquake
Egypt, Syria. Iraq, &c. 1,100,000 killed. Same as 1201?

1202 October 19
Middle East?
Meteor shower
'Stars' shot all night. (46, 82)

1203
London
Lightning?
'Birds' with fire in beaks. Houses set afire.

1204
Java
Earthquake
'Bali separated from Java’. (80)

1204
China
Sunspot
A black spot the size of an egg on the Sun. (63)

1204 April 1
England
Aurora
Red light in sky at night. (25)

1205 January 14
England
Cold
Cold winter, Thames froze. Frost to Mar. 22. Famine in Essex. (25)

1205 June 23
England
Thunderstorms
'Monster stricken by lightning' at Maidstone, Kent. (25, 99)

1205 July 29
England
Thunderstorms and tornadoes
Trees carried away or 'twisted like rope’. Many killed by lightning. (58)

1206 February 28
Spain?
Obscuration
‘Complete darkness for six hours’. 1207 February 27? (61)

1206 December 4
Hekla, Iceland
Volcano
Eruption to spring 1207. (13)

1207
Germany
Cold
Most travellers froze to death on the roads. (11)

1207 January 27
England
Blizzard
Many houses fell. Deep snowdrifts. (11)

1207 February 27
Europe
Annular solar eclipse
‘Human head’ seen in the Sun, Cologne. Ring-phase? (107)

1209 February 11
England
Mirage?
'Battle of the clouds' at sunrise. (25)

1210
Perth, Scotland
Flood
Scots nobles drowned. Many lives lost. (25

1210 January
England
Cold
Severe winter to February. Great snow. (25)

1211
Iceland
Earthquake
Numerous earthquakes in many parts of island. Houses fell. (59)

1211 April
England
Aurora
Red bow in sky at night. (25)

1212
Holland
Sea flood
306,000 drowned.

1212 July 10
France
Coloured rain and halo cross?
Shower of blood, Caen: 3 crosses in sky, Falaise. (59)

1212 winter
Novgorod, Russia
Cold
Early frosts destroyed harvest. Children sold as slaves for bread.

1214
London
Low tide
Thames waded at Tower. Sea withdrew for several miles. (25)

1216
Bremen
Sea flood
20,000 killed.

1217 October 27
Dunstable, England
Meteor?
'Magnificent cross' passed W. to E. (106

1218?
Franche Comté
Subsidence
5,000 men engulfed. No earthquake. (80)

1218 November 11
Holland, Germany
Sea flood
1000,000 killed.

1219
Iceland
Volcano
Submarine eruption off Näss Repp. (80)

1219 January 16
Friesland
Sea flood
36,000 killed.

1221 October 18
London
Gale
Houses and woods fell. From N.E. Year may be 1220 or 1221. (25)

1222 March 13 (or April)
England
Snow
Great snow broke trees. (25)

1222 May 11
Earthquake
Cyprus
Shock and seismic sea wave

1222 May 22
Austria
Hail
Devastating at Salzburg. Egg-sized hail. (87)

1222 September 28
Europe, China
Halley's Comet
Perihelion. 30 cubits long. (15, 116)

1222 December 12
England
Gale
Churches and trees fell. Sea rose. (25, 62))

1222 December 25
Lombardy
Earthquake
Continued 2 weeks. Much damage. (87)

1223
Rome
Fall
Rain of blood-coloured earth for 3 days. (80, 91)

1224
Ireland
Fall
'Strange shower' killed cattle. Nature not stated. (25)

1224 January 1
England
Gale
Towers and churches fell. (25)

1225 June 24
England
'Snow'- soft hail?
Great snow with lightning at Winchester. (25)

1227 July
England
Thunderstorms
“Throughout all England”. Egg-sized hailstones. Many killed by lightning. (25)

1227 winter
France
Rockfalls
5,000 killed at Pays d'Aix. (80)

1231 March
England
Drought
Dry from March to October. (25)

1232 October 16
China
Comet
A ‘broom star’. (116)

1233 April 8
Hereford, England
Halo complex
4 'suns', 2 half circles and a great circle, sunrise. 2 haloes, parhelia and parhelic circle. (62)

1233 June
England
Waterspouts?
Fighting 'dragons' in the air off the South coast. (62)

1233 July 11
England
Floods
Men and animals drowned. Bridges lost. (25)

1233 December 25
England
Cold winter
Frost until February 2, 1234. (25)

1234 July 23
Cambridgeshire, England
Tornado?
Thunderstorm and whirlwind at Abbotsley. (96)

1235
Venice
Cold
Adriatic froze. Ice bore wagons. (82)

1236
Kattegat
Ice
Ice bridge from Norway to Jutland

1236
Europe
Cold
‘River Danube frozen to the bottom’. (82)

1236 January
England
Rain and floods
8 days of rain. Monstrous floods. (62)

1236 November
E. England
Gale and sea flood
Great numbers drowned. Flood for 2 days. (11, 62)

1237 February
France
Flood
Seine flood for 15 days. Also Thames. (25)

1237 September 21
China
Comet
'Twisted and bent’. Seen 48 days. (116)

1237 November 21
England
Gales
Gale for 15 days. Buildings thrown down. (25)

1239 June 3
Europe
Solar eclipse
Seen Coimbra, Toledo, Montpelier, Florence, etc. (107, 108)

1240
Siena, Italy
Aurora?
Brightness like daylight at midnight. (42)

1240
Iceland
Volcano
Submarine eruption, Reika Näss. (84)


1240
Schleswig
Sea flood
‘Many fertile territories’ swallowed up. (82)

1241 March 25
England
Drought
From Mar. 25 to Oct. 28. Many rivers dry. (9)

1243 July 26
England
Meteor shower
'Stars' fell 40 at once. (62)

1245
Katla, Iceland
Volcano
Fields covered by cinders. Glacier-burst. (13)

1245 December 6
Ireland
Frostbite
'Poisonous snow’. People lost toes. (25)

1246 November
Friesland
Sea flood
1,000s drowned.

1247 February 20?
England
Earthquake
Shock felt from Kent to Ireland. St. David's Cathedral injured. (25)

1248
Savoy
Avalanche
From Mt. Grenier. Weight 400,000,000 tons. St. Andre overwhelmed. (82)

1248 December 21
England
Earthquake
Wells church roof fell. (43, 57)

1249 November 24
Cambery
Landslide
Many villages lost. (80)


1250 October 1
North Sea
Gale and sea flood
Great damage, England, Holland, Flanders. (9)

1251 May 19
England
Thunderstorm and tornado
Thunderstorm damaged Windsor. Funnel cloud seen, St. Albans. (25, 98)

1252 January 13
England and Ireland
Gale
E and SW gales caused much damage. (25)

1252 March 13
England
Obscuration
Sun, Moon and stars of a red colour for 15 days. (62)

1252 March - Jul;y
England, Ireland
Drought
Summer heat day and night. Shannon dried up. (25, 89)

1254 January 1
England
Aurora?
'Ship' in air at night at St. Albans. (62)

1255 April 8
Prague
Tornado
‘Swirl’ damaged many buildings. (118)

1255 summer
Lombardy
Seiches?
Lakes and rivers rose and fell. (80)

1256
Arabia
Volcano
Eruption near Medina. (72)

1257 May 27 (c.)
Saxony
Meteorites?
A stone-fall at Wurzburg. (56)

1258
Scotland
Ball lightning?
'Flaming globe’. 2 villas burnt. (Chronicon de Lanercost)

1258 June 24
England
Rain flood
Severn storm flood. Many drowned.

1258-59
Unknown
Volcano
Great eruption recorded, Greenland ice cores.

1260 June 23
England
Hail
Stones took '3 men to lift’. ‘Asserted on oath’. (25)

1262 November 7
Germany
Aurora
E. sky inflamed at dusk. Many locations.

1263 July 29
England
Aurora
'Wonderful sign' in N. sky at midnight. (25)

1263 August 5
Orkney
Annular solar eclipse
‘Sun appeared as a thin bright ring' about 1 pm. (87, 112)

1264 July 26
China, Europe
Comet
Tail extended across sky. 100 cubits long. (116)

1266 May 30
England
Halo complex
White and 'rainbow' circle round Sun. (25)

1268
Cilicia
Earthquake
60,000 killed.

1268 November 30
Europe
Severe winter
Till May 25, 1269. Baltic frozen. (9)

1269
Russia
Aurora
Armies in the sky. (47)

1269 December 6
Cracow, Poland
Aurora
Coss-shaped brightness at twilight.

1270 January 20
Cracow, Poland
Aurora
Cross-shaped light in air at night. (History of Poland, Martin Cromet)

1273
Friesland
Sea flood
20,000 drowned.

1275 September 11
England
Earthquake
Churches overturned, loss of life. (43, 126)

1276
Cilath
Earthquake
Shocks lasted 9 hours. Many killed. (80)

1276
China
Sunspot
Black spot the size of a goose egg on Sun. (63)

1277 January 1
Cracow, Poland
Aurora
Great light at night. Town illuminated. (42)

1277 October 10
E. England
Rain floods
2 days’ rain and vast floods. Men and cattle killed. (67)

1279 October 25
Korea
Aurora
Purple vapour cloud in W. sky. (119)

1281 (1282?)
Austria
Snow
Houses buried. (82)


August 22
Kyushu, Japan
Typhoon
Mongol invasion fleet lost. (10)

1282
Holland
Sea flood
Zuider Zee formed. Tempests. (82)

1282 (c.)
Tuscany, Italy
Volcano
Lago Vecchienna crater erupted, (55)

1282 February 2
Europe
Severe winter
London Bridge wrecked by ice, thaw flooded Paris. Began December 1281. Great snow, Austria. (9)

1285
England
Drought
Fatal heat. (39)

1287 December 14
England, Holland
Sea flood
50,000 drowned, Holland, 500, East Anglia. (58, 76)

1290 September 27
Chihli, China
Earthquake
1000,000 killed.

1292
Russia
Aurora
'Regiments' in the air at night. (47)

1292
Norway
Cold
‘One sheet of ice’ between Norway and Jutland. (82)

1293 May 20
Kamakura, Japan
Earthquake
30,000 killed.

1294
Hekla, Iceland
Eruption
Pumice reached Faeroes. (13)

1294 May 14
London
Snow
Heavy snow fell in City. (127)

1295 March
Yemen
Hail
Stone too big to see over. Animals killed. (38)

1296 (or 1300?)
Velikoi-Ustyug, Russia
Meteorites?
Dark thundering cloud, then 'stony swarm' fell. Possibly a tornado. (36, 60))

1298 July 28
England, Ireland
Obscuration
Sun blood-coloured. (33)

1299 February
England
Comet with radiant tail. (33)

1300 (c.)
Spain
Meteorites?
Several stones fell at Arragon. (56)

1300 July 10
Hekla, Iceland
Volcano
Ash caused much damage. Eruption lasted a year. (103, 111)

1301 October 23
Europe, China
Halley's Comet
Perihelion. Tail 70° long. (90)

1302
Ischia, Italy
Volcano
Lava flow for 2 months. Also Vesuvius. (79)

1303 August 8
Egypt, Syria
Earthquake
Sea wave flooded Alexandria. Many buried under ruins. (28)

1304 October 1
Saale, Saxony
Meteorites
Several stones fell. (56)

1305 summer
England
Hot summer
Burning heat and drought. Hay failed. (126)

1305 December 15
England
Cold winter
‘Frost and frozen snow’ till January 25, 1306. (126)

1306
Japan?
Coloured rain
Orange rain killed many men and cattle. (109)

1308
China
Droughts, floods
First of many disasters. Famine, plague. (39)

1308
Italy
Aurora?
'Great flame' after sunset from N. to S. (41)

1309 May 10
Italy
Aurora
‘Very great fire’ seen from Florence. (42)

1309 December 25
England
Severe winter
Thames frozen. (52)

1311 January 25
Iceland
Volcano
Katla erupted; glacier-burst. (13, 59)

1313
China
Drought
Whole empire desolated. (39)

1315
Europe
Rain
Incessant rains followed by famine. Polish poor ate hanged bodies. (2, 71)

1316
England
Rain & floods
2 years' heavy rain. Famine killed 1,000s. (58)

1317 November 19
Dublin, Ireland
Gale
Houses prostrated. (25)

1318
China
Flood
'Multitudes drowned’. (39)

1319
Armenia
Earthquake
Many towns ruined. (80)

1321
Ho-nan, China
Drought
Famine followed. (39)

1321-1368
O-chia, China
Meteorites
'Iron rain' killed people and animals. (77)

1322 October 31
England
Obscuration
Sun like blood for 6 hours. (25)

1322 November 4
Middlesex, England
Anomalous phenomenon
‘Pillar of fire’ slowly crossed sky, Uxbridge. (30)

1323 winter
Denmark
Severe winter
S. Baltic frozen. (128)

1324
China
Earthquakes
Droughts, floods, locusts. Again in 1327. (39)

1325
England
Hot summer
Drought; springs failed. Many cattle died.

1328 December 1
Rome, etc.
Earthquake
Norcia ruined, 5,000 killed. (80)

1330
China
Floods
Harvest ruined, famine. (39)

1332
Iceland
Submarine volcano
Eruption between Iceland and Greenland. (13)

1332
China
Floods
Rain and floods killed 7 million. (73)

1333
China
Drought, floods
4000,000 drowned in floods. Famine. (120)

1333
Baltic
Ice
Solid ice from Denmark to Prussia. (82)

1334
China
Drought, floods
13 million persons died in famine and floods, S. provinces. (39)

1334
China
Earthquake
Created lake 100 leagues in circumference in Ki-Ming-Chan mountains. (120)

1335 May 15
Mugello, Italy
Earthquake
Great landslide followed. River Arno disturbed. (80)

1339
Iceland
Earthquakes
Throughout S. Iceland. Several mountains disrupted. (59)

1339 July 13
Silesia
'Meteorites?
300 'thunderbolts' fell in storm. (56)

1340
Iceland
Volcanoes
Eruptions of Ogmundarhraun, Trolladyngja and Brennisteinsfjoll. (13)

1340
Asia Minor
Meteorite?
A stone-fall at Aidin. (56)

1341 May 19
Hekla, Iceland
Volcano
Ash killed much livestock. (13, 103, 111)

1342
Vienna, Austria
Flood
Danube flood, 6,000 drowned. (48)

1343
Hekla, Iceland
Volcano
11 farms destroyed. (13)

1343 January 1
Membij, Syria
Earthquake
Town destroyed, 5,700 killed. (93)

1344
China
Earthquake
Great tract inundated. Seismic sea wave (39)

1344
Drontheim, Norway
River burst
River Gaulen vanished and reappeared in flood. 250 drowned, 48 farms lost. Year may be 1339. (5, 80)

1344 November
Italy
Severe winter
Frost from November to March. All Italian rivers frozen. (82)

1345
Iceland
Volcano
Submarine volcano in Breioi Fjord. (129)

1345 July
Italy
Rain
Lasted 6 months. Then famine. (120)

1346 (c.)
‘Indies’
Earthquakes, etc.
Earthquakes ruined cities, fiery vapours, blood-rains, stone-showers. (120)

1347
Ho-tong, China
Drought
Many died. (39)

1347
Cyprus
Earthquake
Sea wave swept island. Much damage. (120)

1347 January 25
Italy
Aurora?
'Immense vapour' in N. (42)

1347 September
‘Greater India’
Prodigies
Rains of frogs, fatal hailstones, fire and stinking smoke. (2)

1348
Iceland
Severe winter
Sea froze round Iceland. (82)

1348 January 25
Italy
Earthquake
Italy shaken from Naples to Venice. Felt Germany, Greece. (80)

1349 September 10
Italy
Earthquake
Felt through most of Europe. (80)

1354
Italy
Aurora
Sky burned for many hours. (41)

1356
Ireland
Earthquake
'Great loss of people’. (57)

1356 October 18
Europe
Earthquake
Destruction in Switzerland, France and Germany. Castles and churches fell. Basle destroyed by post-shock fire.

1359 February 9
Florence, Italy
Aurora
'Inflamed vapour' at night. Like a bridge’. (41)

1360
England
Meteorite?
A stone-fall in Yorkshire. (56)

1360 May 8
Chartres, France
Hailstorm
'Thousands perished’. Men and horses killed. (76)

1360 September 13
Austria
Aurora
4 'fiery rainbows' in N. at night. (41)

1361 February 25
England
Aurora
'Cloud like fire' at night. (25)

1361 May 27
Boulogne, France
Halo cross?
'Bloody cross' in sky all day; fell into sea. Blood-rain in Burgundy, May. (126)

1361 December 27
Sienna, Italy
Earthquake
Many buildings fell, 7 great shocks. (80)

1362 January 13
Britain
Gale
'St. Maury's Wind’. Great S.W. storm. (66)

1362 March 5
China
Comet
Curved vapour extending across heavens. (116)

1362 June
Oraefajokull, Iceland
Volcano
Subglacial eruption destroyed 30 farms, also 17 churches. (101, 103)

1363 September 16
Europe
Severe winter.
Terrible frost Sept.-April. Rhine frozen. (9)

1366 January 12
England
Aurora
Red sky in E. at night. Red and white rays. (20)

1366 October 22
Portugal
Meteor shower
'Stars' fell thickly. (46)

1368
Oldenburg, Germany
Meteorite
Mass of iron fell. (60)

1368 March
England
Comet
‘Blazing star’ between N and W. (62)

1368 October
St. Denis, France
Tornado?
Trees torn up by roots, church hit by thunderbolt.’ Crows’ with fire in beaks.

1369
China
Meteorite?
'Star' fell in river. Fire started. (77)

1370
Russia
Aurora
Red sky at night. Pillars in sky. (108)

1370
China
Sunspots
Spots frequently observed. (63)

1371 October 5
Vicenzo, Italy
Aurora
'Inflamed smoke' at night. Great light. (41)

1372
Iceland
Submarine volcano
Eruption between Iceland and Greenland. Formed temporary island. (13, 55))

1372
Arragon, Spain
Earthquake
'Terrible earthquakes’. Mountains fell.

1373 May
China
Comets
3 comets seen. (116)

1375 May 10
Italy
Aurora
Burning fire at night. Moved N. to S. (41)

1376
Europe
Earthquake
Damage in Hungary, Austria and Bavaria. (80)
.
1377 November 16
Holland, etc
Sea flood
30,000 drowned, 32 villages lost, Germany.

1378 November 9
China
Halley's Comet
Perihelion. (15, 116)

1379 May 26
Minden, Germany
Meteorites
Several stones fell. (60)

1381 May 21
England, France
Earthquake
Churches thrown down. Mallet says 1382. (43, 57, 80)

1381 November 7
China
Comet
A bright comet. (116)

1383
England
Fogs
'Foetid fogs' spoiled fruit. Many died. (39)

1383 August
Lesbos, Greece
Earthquake
All buildings fell. 500 killed. (80)

1385 July 15
England
Aurora? Meteor?
‘Fire’ in S divided into 3. (25)

1385 October
China
Comet
Tail 30 degrees long. (19, 116)

1387
Europe
Hot summer
‘The Old Hot Summer’. Rhine waded at Cologne. (9)

1389
Hekla, Iceland
Volcano
Ash and lava flow. (13, 111)

1390 & 1391
Iceland
Earthquakes
Numerous shocks. Ground rent, boiling water sprang up. (59)

1390 June
England
Hot summer
Intense heat till September. Plague. (39)

1391 May 23
China
Two comets. (116)

1391 July 9
England
Obscuration
Red Sun gave no light from noon to sunset. (62)

1392
France
Drought
Ponds and rivers dry. Cattle died.

1394 March 22
Europe
Earthquake
Switzerland, France, Germany. Mountains shook to summits. (80)

1395 November
England
Aurora?
'Thing in the likeness of fire' at night. Seen most of winter. (62)

1395 December 18
Valencia, Spain
Earthquake
Many buildings fell. Many shocks. (80)

1399 July 22
Bologna, Italy
Aurora
'Very great redness' in air. (41)

1400 (c.)
Bohemia
Meteorite
235-lb. iron mass fell near Elbogen. (88)

1402 March 21
Europe
Comet
Perihelion of great comet. Visible day and night. Seen Feb. 21-Apr.10, Paris. (26)

1402 May 25
Essex, England
Tornado and ball lightning?
'Apparition' damaged Danbury church.’ Flashing of shining globes’. (97)

1402 September 7
Wales
Tornado
King's lances thrown and pierced armour. (69)

1403 December 18
Italy
Aurora
Great 'inflamed globe' at night. (41)

1405
Denmark, Germany
Sea flood
36,000 drowned.

1406 June 16
English Channel
Solar eclipse
Alarmed French fleet. (31, 78)

1407
England
Severe winter
Great frost for 25 weeks. (39)

1408
Europe
Severe winter
1407-08. Norway wolves reached Jutland across ice. Rivers and Swiss lakes froze. (9, 82, 128)

1408 October 24
China
Supernova?
A motionless yellow star in Niandao. (8)

1408 December 30
Syria
Earthquake
Antioch, Aleppo, etc. Seismic sea wave. (93)

1413 August
Aberdeenshire, Scotland
Sand
Town of Forvie obliterated by sandstorm. (73)

1416
Bohemia
Coloured rain
Red rain fell. (38)

1421 November 18
Holland
Sea flood
72 villages lost, 10,000 drowned. (76)

1422
Eldey, Iceland
Volcano
Submarine eruption. Island formed. (13)

1423 winter
Europe
Severe winter
North Sea and Baltic frozen. (82)

1426 September 29
Britain
Earthquake
Whole of Britain. Lasted 2 hours. (80)

1427 March 5
Amer, Spain
Earthquake
Every wall and house fell. No fatalities. (81)

1427 April 2
Barcelona, Spain
Earthquake
10 or 12 shocks a day for 110 days. (81)

1427 May 15
Spain
Earthquake
20 towns much damaged. leo felt in France. (80)

1428 February 2
Spain
Earthquake
Many towns ruined.

1430 September 9
China
Comet
Large dark blue round ball seen 26 days. (116)

1431 November 20
Germany
Severe winter
Until March 4, 1432. Rivers frozen. (73)

1433 June 17
Scotland
Solar eclipse
'Black Hour’. (31)

1434
Hekla, Iceland
Volcano
Damaging ash-fall. (13)

1435 (or 1434)
Ireland
Severe winter
Great frost for 7 weeks. Rivers and lakes frozen

1438
Burgos, Spain
Meteorites
Many vesicular stones fell. (45, 56)

1439 March 25
China
Comet
Tail 50 cubits long. ’Large like a ball’. (116)

1441
Asia Minor
Volcano
Nimrud, near Lake Van, said to have erupted. (72)

1443 June 5
Hungary
Earthquake
Many buildings fell. Also Poland, Bohemia. (80)

1446 April 10
Europe
Storm
Thunder, snow and cold. Sea flood drowned 100,000, Germany, France, Holland. (9)

1449
France
Avalanches
‘Abundance of avalanches’ , Dauphine. (53)

1449 September 5
Suffolk, England
Anomalous phenomenon?
Battle between 2 fire-breathing dragons near Little Cornard. (114)

1453
Constantinople
Aurora?
'Dazzling light' over town all night. (37)

1453
Germany
Tornado
Rodenberg and Deister.

1456
N. Atlantic
Submarine volcano
Between Iceland and Greenland. Temporary island formed. (13)

1456 June 9
China, Europe
Halley's Comet
Perihelion. Prodigious tail. (23, 116)

1456 August 24
Ancona, Italy
Tornado
Crossed Italy from W. to E. Great damage. (92)

1456 December 5
Naples
Earthquake
60,000 killed. (80)

1459
Baltic Sea
Ice
Ice crossed from Denmark to Lubeck. (82)

1459
Switzerland
Avalanche
655-year old church at Disentis destroyed, 16 killed. (53)

1460 c.
New Zealand
Earthquake
Maori tradition. (49)

1465 March
China
Comet
Tail 30 cubits long. (116)

1467
Ava, Burma
Earthquake
Buildings destroyed. (80)

1467
England
Aurora??
Army in the sky. (64)

1470 November 1
North Sea coast
Sea flood
10,000 drowned.

1471
Italy
Hailstones
'Larger than ostrich eggs’. (80)

1471 May
Ireland
Hailstones
Stones up to 3 inches round caused injuries. (89)

1472 February 28
China, Europe
Comet
Great comet perihelion. Moved 40° in one day. Seen in daylight. (23, 116)

1473 autumn
England
Hot autumn
Harvesters died of heat. (39)

1474
Italy
Meteorites
Two large black stones fell at Viterbo. (60)

1476
Sakurajima, Japan
Volcano
Eruption killed many.

1478
England
Hot summer
4 months of great heat. Pestilence. (39)

1480
Somerset, England
Aurora??
Army in the sky. (29)

1480 December 28
England
Earthquake
Buildings thrown down. Whole country. (43, 57)

1481 April 5
Rhodes
Earthquake
30,000 killed. (75)

1482 August 27
Florence, Italy
Aurora
‘Fiery flames’ in W. at night. (75)

1488
Ireland
Tornado?
‘Whirlwind’ killed 5 persons in Roscommon. (89)

1490
Ireland
Earthquake
‘Eruption of the earth’. 100 killed. Lake formed. (89)

1490 January 10
Florence, Italy
Cold winter
River Arno froze. Tennis on ice. (21)

1490 January 17
Florence, Italy
Glazed frost
Freezing rain broke trees. (75)

1490 February or March
Shansi Province, China
Meteorites
'Stones fell like rain' and killed over 10,000. Largest size of goose eggs. (6, 77)

1491 March 22
Italy
Meteorite?
A stone-fall at Crema. (56)

1491 October
Cos, Greece
Earthquake
5.000 killed. (80)

1492 April 5
Florence, Italy
Lightning?
‘Thunderbolt’ fell on church from clear sky. (68)

1492 September 15
Atlantic
Meteor?
'Branch of fire' fell in sea. Observed by Columbus. (40)

1492 November 7
Alsace
Meteorite
200 lb. stone fell, Ensisheim, after explosion. (77)

1493 January 20
Florence, Italy
Blizzard
Streets blocked by snow. Violent wind. (21)

1495 June
Hispaniola
Waterspout
3 of Columbus’ ships sunk by waterspout. (50)

1495 October?
Santo Domingo
Hurricane
Experienced by Columbus, 3 ships sunk. (110)

1495 December 4
Rome
Flood
Great Tiber flood. Many drowned. (9)

1496 January 26
Valdinoce, Italy
Meteorites
3 stones fell. (60)

1496 May 4
Florence, Italy
Wet year
’11 months’ rain’ to this date. (75)

1498 January 6
Florence, Italy
Cold winter
River Arno froze. (21)

1498 September 20
Japan
Earthquake
Shock and seismic sea wave, Nankai. 30,000 killed.

1500 June 29
Rome
Squall and hail
Papal palace ruined. Hail 3 feet deep. (75)

1500 June
N. Africa
Meteor shower
'Stars fell like rain’. (130)