LANDMARKS OF WORLD HISTORY

A Chronology of Remarkable Natural Phenomena
18th Century 1791-1800
Numbers show sources
Date
Location
Phenomenon
Description

1791 May 16
Connecticut, USA
Earthquake
3 shocks at East Haddam, followed by nearly 100 aftershocks. Subterranean sounds constantly heard (the ‘Moodus noises’). (37)

1791 May 18
Eastern United States
Earthquake
Severe shock from Boston to New York; some damage, ground clefts. (37)

1791 June 15
Southern England
Summer cold
Temperature fell from 75° F. to 25° F. in a few days. Kent and Surrey hills snow-covered. (7)

1791 June 21
Cuba
Hurricane
Rain floods drowned 3,000 persons. (1)

1791 August 29
Hungary
Earthquake and storm
Shock at Presburg, accompanied by storm which overthrew buildings and forests. (37)

1791 October
Mediterranean
Earthquakes
‘Simultaneous shocks devastated Sicily, Calabria and Turkey’. (37)

1791 December (or November) 2
Greece
Earthquake
Violent shock threw down many houses in Zante. (37)

1791 December 11 - 12
Norfolk, England
Winter cold
‘Piercing cold’ with strong N. wind. “Froze within doors’ all day. (60)


1792 January 23
United States
Winter cold
Snow up to 24 inches deep in Ohio from December 1791. Ohio River at Wheeling frozen for 40 days. (35)

1792 February 10
Japan
Volcano
Unzendake volcano erupted; 10,400 persons killed in mudflows.

1792 March 2
England
Earthquake
Shock with loud rumbling affected 4,000 square miles in Bedford, Leicestershire, Lincolnshire, Rutland and Nottinghamshire. (12)

1792 April 13
England
Thunderstorms
‘Prodigious damage’ by lightning, hail and heavy rain. A ‘waterspout’ fell near Bromsgrove (Worcs,) and flooded town. (2, 25)

1792 May 21
Holland
Sea disturbance
Sea at Sandvort rose ‘higher than ever known’ and sank again in a few seconds. No earthquake felt.

1792 May 21
Japan
Landslide
A debris avalanche from the volcano Unzen fell into the sea and raised a wave which drowned 14,524 persons. (49)

1792 June
Washington State, USA
Volcano
Mount Baker erupted. (18)

1792 June 5
England
Summer cold
‘Intense frost and deep snow’ around Gloucester. (7)

1792 June 30
Ontario, Canada
Tornado
‘First recorded Canadian tornado’ damaged trees and buildings in the Niagara Peninsula. (61)

1792 July 18
Scotland
‘Cloudburst’
Funnel cloud at Benardy, followed by deluge of water from mountain which flooded the ‘country round’. (24)

1792 August 1 - 2
West Indies
Hurricane
Flood at St. Kitts killed many persons and ‘made havoc’ with shipping. (51)

1792 October 15
England
Aurora
Red concentric arches and streamers in southern sky, followed by auroral corona. (39)

1792 November - December
Scotland
Aurora?
Red, fiery ‘dragons’ flew rapidly from north to east. (6)


1793
Argentina, South America
Thunderstorm
37 locations in Buenos Aires struck by lightning, 19 persons killed. (39)

1793 January 1
Italy
Sea flood
Storm in the Adriatic flooded ‘half of Venice’. (3)

1793 March 1
Japan
Earthquake
‘Frightful’ shock in Kiou-Siou island. Chasms opened, landslides from mountains. (37)


1793 March 11
Sweden
Subsidence
‘391,000 Swedish ells’ of ground in Swedish Finland sank to depth of 15 fathoms. Most of the inhabitants fled. (3)

1793 April 1
Japan
Volcano
Illligigama erupted: ’vast stream of water’ burst from volcano, ‘destroying 53,000 men’. (37)

1793 April 1
England
Late snow
Snow up to 3 feet deep in Leicestershire and the North of England. “Some people lost and perished’. Rapid thaw. (3, 25)

1793 July 6 - 13
Paris, France
Summer heat
46 hot days from June 28 to Aug. 30. Intense continued heat from July 6 to 17; ‘thermometer at 30°’ (C.?) (62

1793 July 16
London, England
Summer heat
Temperature in shade at Edmonton 93° F. (3)


1794
Black Sea
Mud volcano
Mud volcano of Prekla, on the Taman peninsula ejected over 20,000,000 cubic feet of mud, accompanied by ‘columns of fire.’ (40)

1794 January 24
Southern Scotland
Snow
Snowfall stopped all travel. 17 shepherds died between Crawfordmuir and border. Sudden thaw on Jan. 30 caused Clyde flood. (44)

1794 February 6 (or 7)
Austria
Earthquake
Shock threw down buildings at Gratz. Felt in Vienna. (37)

1794 summer
Northern France
Fall
Large numbers of small toads fell for half an hour after heavy rain. (42)

1794 June 15
Italy
Volcano
Lava flood from Vesuvius destroyed city of Torre del Greco. 15,000 inhabitants fled. (30)

1794 June 16
Italy
Meteorites
‘Multitude of red hot stones’, up to a pound in weight, fell at Sienna during violent thunderstorm. (10, 46)

1794 June 19
United States
Tornadoes
Tornadoes in Pennsylvania, Connecticut and New York. Buildings and trees destroyed. (34)

1794 July 1
Massachusetts, United States
Tornado
A tornado with a track 20 miles ling and half a mile wide felled trees and killed cattle. (34)

1794 August 21
Nottinghamshire, England
Ball lightning
‘Compact ball of fire’ during thunderstorm badly damaged a house at Mansfield. (28)



1795
Alaska
Volcano
Smoke rose from sea in 1794 and in 4 years formed Bogosloff Island, 3,000 feet high and 4 miles in circumference. (41)

1795
Latvia
Tornado
A tornado nearly a mile wide with a track 99 miles long. (42)

1795 January 25
France
Winter cold
‘Coldest day ever known’ in Paris, -23.5° C. (-10.3° F.), 42 days’ consecutive days of frost. Thames, Maine, Scheldt, Rhine and Seine frozen over. (26)

1795 February 13
Derby, England
Flood
‘Unequalled’ flood after thaw inundated Burton; part of 12th-century bridge collapsed. (50)

1795 October 15
Massachusetts, United States
Tornado
Great forest destruction at Winchendon. (42)

1795 November 18
England
Earthquake
Shock threw down chimneys in Derby, Nottingham and Ashover. Felt in York, Liverpool, Bristol, Oxford and Norwich. (12)

1795 November 18
Southern England
Gales
19 ships wrecked on south coast after 8 days of gales. Over 1,000 drowned bodies washed up in Dorset. (33)

1795 December 13
Yorkshire, England
Meteorite
A 56 pound (25 kg.) stone seen to fall at Wold Cottage after detonations. See here. (10)



1796 January 15
Ukraine
Meteorite
A 4-pound (2 kg.) stone fell at Bjelaja Zerkov. One of several. (19, 21)

1796 January 27
Portugal
Earthquake
‘Severe earthquake’ at Lisbon. Aftershocks till 21 Feb. (37)

1796 February 19
Portugal
Meteorite
10 pounds of stones fell near Evora. (19)

1796 March 8
North Germany
Bolide
Fireball as large as the Moon exploded. ‘Bituminious substance fell’. (19)

1796 April 26
Asia Minor
Earthquake
Shock wrecked Latakiah; 1,500 persons killed. (37)

1796 October 21
Ireland
Mirage
‘Fata Morgana’ mirage of a walled town on a hill, Youghal, Cork. Seen again on March 9, 1797 and in June, 1801 (63)

1796 December 23
United States
Winter cold
Temperature of -13° (F.?) at Lexington, Kentucky on Dec. 23. Ohio River at Cairo closed by ice for 30 days until Jan. 20, 1797. (35)

1796 December 25
London, England
Winter cold
A temperature of -6° F. at Marylebone. (38)


1797 February 4
Ecuador
Earthquake
40,000 persons killed. Fissures threw out ‘sulphur, mud, and water’. (23)

1797 February 10 (or 20)
Sumatra
Earthquake
3-minute shock, mainly in Penang. Sea rose and caused inundations. Volcano Merapi in Java erupted. (8, 37)

1797 March 2
Paris, France
Lunar event
‘Volcano on the Moon’ seen by Caroche, with naked eye? (45)

1797 May 4
Hertfordshire, England
Hail
Hailstones fell 14 inches in circumference. (5)

1797 May 23
Hartz Mountains, Germany
Optical phenomenon
‘Brocken Spectre’ observed by Hane at sunrise. (15)

1797 July 26
Sussex, England
Mirage
Magnifying mirage seen from Hastings. The French coast, about 50 miles away, seemed a few miles distant. Year may be 1798. (29)

1797 August 1
Northern England
Tornadoes
Tornado on Balsall Common unroofed buildings and caused a rain of dung. Tornado at Manchester unroofed houses and felled trees. (16)

1797 September 1
Ecuador
Earthquake
Many cities shaken, including Quito and Binamba; ‘thousands’ killed. (43)

1797 December 14
Venezuela
Earthquake
Much damage in Cumana; ‘many killed’. (48)



1798 (reported)
Germany
Hail
Hailstones or ‘ice masses’ fell half an inch in diameter and weighing 8 pounds. (39)

1798 February 4
Virginia, USA
Snow
About 60 inches of snow fell at Norfolk. 10 days later another 40 inches fell. (32)

1798 March 8
France
Meteor
Fireball passed from Calvaire to Mont-d’Or. ‘Bituminious matter’ said to have fallen. (19, 45)

1798 March 12
France
Meteorite
A 20-pound stone fell at Sales after fireball. (19, 47)

1798 March 24
North Carolina, USA
Tornado
A tornado about a quarter of a mile wide passed through Moore County at 80 m.p.h. Track may have exceeded 200 miles. (34)

1798 May 26
Italy
Earthquake
Frequent shocks till the end of May left Sienna ‘a mass of debris’. (37)

1798 June 17
Tenerife
Volcano
Great eruption of Chaharra lasted 3 months. (37)

1798 October 31
Ireland
Tornado?
“Dreadful hurricane’ in Tipperary; trees uprooted and lifted. (17)

1798 November 19 - 21
Northeast United States
Blizzard
The’ Long Storm’; deep snow from Maryland to Maine. (35)

1798 December 10
Europe
Severe winter.
River Seine frozen from 29 Dec. to 19 Jan. 1799. Meuse and Rhine frozen. (26)

1798 December 19 (or 13)
India
Meteorites
A shower of stones near Benares after exploding meteor. (19, 21)



1799 January 5
Northeast United States
Severe winter
The ‘Long Winter’. -8° F at Salem, Massachusetts. 3 feet of lying snow on April 7. Snowfalls on May 2 and 8, snowdrifts in Vermont on June 9. (35)

1799 January 25
France
Earthquake
Many houses fell in the island of Bouin on west coast. ‘Atmosphere appeared fiery red’. (37)

1799 February 6
Channel Islands
Earthquake
Several houses ‘rent’ in Guernsey. (20)

1799 February 10
Perthshire, Scotland
Daylight aurora?
Sun obscured, 3:30 p.m. Sky covered with pale vapour showing ‘coruscations’. (4)

1799 March 26
Denmark Sound
Ice
Sledges crossed frozen Sound from Denmark to Sweden. Ice in Sound on May 11. (27)

1799 July 3
Berwickshire, Scotland
Tornado
Tornado at Whitelaw damaged buildings; man carried 40 yards. “Immense numbers’ of roof tiles fell from great height. (36)

1799 November 12
Americas
Meteor shower
A meteor storm from 3 a.m. till daybreak, Florida and South America. (13)

1799 December 6
Germany
Meteor shower
Brandes observed Andromedid meteors at a rate of 100 per hour for 4 hours. (31)



1800 (circa)
India
Ice meteor?
An ice mass ‘the size of an elephant’ fell near Seringapatam, and took 3 days to melt. (11, 14)

1800 January 11
Florida, USA
Snow
5 inches of snow fell near the Georgia border. (32)

1800 April 5
Louisiana, USA
Meteor?
Huge light illuminated ground like ‘sunbeams’, followed by rushing sound and a ‘tremendous crash’. Has been dated 1799. (9)

1800 April 23
Germany
Tornado
Tornado 60 paces broad moved 5 miles near Hainichen. Trees and buildings destroyed; man thrown into ravine. (15)

1800 May 4
Lincolnshire, England
Hailstorm
Birds killed by 1-inch diameter hailstones at Morton. A tornado seen. (22)

1800 June 11
Spain
Tornado
Tornado like a ‘sky blue serpent’ , emitting ‘fire’, uprooted trees and burnt the ground at Quintana, Burgos province. (53)

1800 August 19
Bedfordshire, England
Thunderstorm
Hailstones up to 11 inches in circumference broke many windows in Crawley. 3 women killed by lightning at Lyme Regis, Dorset. (54)

1800 September 3
Midlands, England
Thunderstorms
3 hours of ‘violent rain’; floods in Rutland and Lincolnshire. (58, 59)

1800 November 8 - 9
Europe
Gale
A ‘most dreadful hurricane’ from N.W. uprooted trees and unroofed houses in London. 10 persons killed at Gravelines; 200 mills blown down near Lille. Many persons killed in Holland. (55, 56, 59)