LANDMARKS OF WORLD HISTORY
A Chronology of Remarkable Natural Phenomena
Eighteenth Century 1771-1780
Numbers show sources
Date
Location
Phenomenon
Description
1771 January 4
Europe
Floods
Inundations, Belgium, Germany, Holland. (22)

1771 February 1
Whitehaven, England
Sea disturbance
Sea rose and flooded town; fort demolished. (3)

1771 February 1
Phillipines
Earthquake
Great damage near Manilla. (52)

1771 April 13
Germany
Late cold
Frost every night, Berlin; ‘great quantity’ of lying snow. (3)

1771
May 12
Hampshire, England
Aurora
'Vast aurora', in NE and SW. (45)

1771
May 14
Vesuvius, Italy
Volcano
Explosions and lava flow. (24)

1771
May 27
Virginia
Floods
All rivers E. of Allegheny Mts; 150 drowned. (3)

1771 July 7 (reported)
Germany
Storms and floods
Thunderstorms and rain for several weeks; ‘violent inundations’. (23)

1771
July 17
France, England
Bolide
Detonating meteor 'larger than Moon’. (44)

1771 August 7
Siberia
Earthquake
Chimneys thrown down, Tounkiskinskoi. (52)

1771 August 15
Italy
Earthquake
Landslide overwhelmed several villages, near Bergamo. (52)

1771
September 2
Cotbus, Germany
Fall
Fish fell in thunderstorm. (17)

1771 September 3
Jamaica
Earthquake
Much damage. (52)

1771 September 16
France
Flood
4 hours’ rain flooded Aix, Provence; many drowned. (3)

1771
November 17
N. E. England
Floods
'Many lives lost' near Stockton on Tees. (25)

1771 December 1 (reported)
North of England
Floods
Bridges and village destroyed. 34 ships wrecked, Sunderland; many drowned. (3)

1771 December 8
England
Gale
Trees torn up and houses unroofed, Suffolk; many shipwrecks. (62)

1772 January 9
Parthenay, France
Earthquake
Buildings thrown down. (52)

1772
January 26-28
Virginia, Maryland
Snowstorm
36 inches of snow fell. (61)

1772
February 29
Shropshire, England
Blizzard
'Hurricane' and snow killed men and cattle. (26)

1772
March 5
Massachusetts
Snow
Nearly 5 feet of snow by Mar. 20th. (51)

1772 April 5
Lisbon
Earthquake
2 violent shocks in 2 hours; no damage. (27)

1772
April 18
Girgenti, Sicily
Hailstorm
84 killed by lightning. 20-ounce stones killed many cattle. (27)

1772
July 17
Macao
Typhoon
'About' 100,000 killed. (10)

1772
July 20
Hampshire, England
Aurora
'Vast aurora’. (45)

1772
August 11
Papandayang, Java
Volcano
Explosion shattered cone; 3,000 killed. (2, 5)

1772
August 31
Leeward Islands
Hurricane
Sea rose 72 feet, Santa Cruz. (59)

1772 September 7
Scotland
Flood
Rain flood swept away trees and bridges, Inverary. (30)

1772
September 13
Tyrol
Earthquake
Icefalls blocked rivers; towns submerged. (52)

1772
September 15
Marseilles, France
Rain
10 inches of rain in 12 hours. (29)

1772 September 17
France
Lightning
Lightning killed all pike and trout in the River Doubs. (20)

1772 September 25
England
Gale
Oxford, Hampshire, etc.
Great damage to shipping and buildings in London, Portsmouth, Oxford, etc. (30, 45)

1772 September 27
France
Ball lightning
Large fireball ‘drowned itself in the Doubs’, Besancon. (20)

1772 October 2
Tyrol
Thaw flood
Many buildings demolished; water 10 feet deep, Inspruck. (28)

1772
October 30
Monmouth, Wales
Flood
Houses and inhabitants swept away. (28)

1772 November 21
Ireland
Gale
Storm of wind and rain, Londonderry; great building damage, many shipwrecks. (4)

1772 November 22
Isle of Wight, England
Gale
‘Lot’s Wife’, one of the Needles, fell. (63)

1772 December 14
Ice
Capt. Cook encounters Antarctic ice barrier. (64)

1773 January 1
Santorini, Greece
Volcano
Submarine eruption in caldera. (40)

1773
January 12
Comora, Hungary
Earthquake
Danube flooded town; many drowned. (52)

1773
January 17
Antarctic
Exploration
Capt. Cook crosses Antarctic Circle. (48)

1773 January 20
Scotland
Tornado?
‘Hurricane’ blew down several houses, Glasgow. (40)

1773 January 22 (reported)
Sweden
Earthquakes
Violent shocks, Wonersberg; many chimneys fell, Lake Wener swelled and destroyed bridge. (5)

1773 January 23
Claussayes, France
Earthquake
Much damage. (52)

1773
January 28
Poitou, France
Earthquake
Followed by tornado-like storm. (52)

1773 February 2 (reported)
Wales
Snow and geological event?
“Vast snow’, Flintshire; Moelsamma mountain emitted ‘liquid fire’. (4)

1773
February 7
Claussayes, France
Earthquake
Accompanied by 'tourbillon' (whirl). (52)

1773 February 17
58° South
Aurora
Capt. Cook observes aurora australis. (54)

1773
May 6
North Africa
Earthquake
Algiers and Tangier damaged; sea disturbed. (40)

1773
May 12
Corfu, Greece
Earthquake
'Third part of island ruined’. (52)

1773 May 31
Cape of Good Hope
Storm
Surge in Table Bay wrecked many ships. (40)

1773
June 3
Santiago, Guatemala
Earthquake
City destroyed, 58,000 killed. (56)

1773 June
13
At sea, 59° N.
Noctilucent clouds
Illuminated clouds long after sunset. (58)

1773
June 17
Belford, France
Hailstorm
Stones up to ½ lb. Many persons hurt. (40)

1773
June 18
Zittau, Lusatia
Hailstorm
Houses 'beaten down' and trees split. Green sky. (40)

1773
June 30
'Guatimala'
Volcanoes
'Fire and water volcanoes' destroyed city. (40)

1773
June 30 (reported)
Rhichenback, Saxony
Lightning
Town 'reduced to ashes’. (40)

1773 July 8 (reported)
Holland
Hailstorm
Huge hard stones with many points destroyed crops; several persons killed. (5)

1773
July 29
Crespi, France
Bolide
Brilliant meteor; great explosion. (40)

1773 July 29
Central America
Earthquake
City of Antigua Guatemala destroyed.

1773
August 8
Yorkshire, England
Meteor
Fireball; probably exploded. (40)

1773 August 14
Massachusetts
Tornado
Waterspout became tornado, Amesbury Point and destroyed many buildings. (49)

1773
August 18
Bretagne, France
Thunderstorm
Flood drowned 53. Intense lightning, rain all day. (40)

1773 September 13
Norway
Earthquake
“Trembling’ throughout great part of Norway. (52)

1773 September 23
Sweden
‘Electric rain’
Raindrops ‘threw out fire’ on striking ground; thunderstorm. (6)

1773 September
Italy
Flood
Rain flood ‘swept away all before it’, Lake of Lugano. (40)

1773 October 10
Yorkshire, England
Tornado
House destroyed near York, 1 person killed. (6)

1773 October 19 and 20
Hampshire
Aurora
‘Vivid auroras’, Selborne. (45)

1773 November 15
Oxford
Tornado
Buildings damaged. (40)

1773 December 31
Italy
Floods
30,000 fields overflowed, St. Bruzon. (40)

1774 March 1
Yorkshire, England
Ball lightning?
Storm with 'falling stars' and fireball. (12)

1774
May 22 (rep.)
Saxony, Germany
Hailstorms
'Whole districts laid waste’. (32)

1774
July 26
Hertford, England
Hailstorm
'Incredible damage’. (32)

1774
July 30 (rep.)
Gonapi, Java
Volcano
Eruption threw 295 lb. stone on Batavia. (32)

1774 August 3
Alenson
Hailstorm
Hail 18 inches in circumference broke roofs; 1 man killed. (6)

1774 August 5 (reported)
Finland
Heat and drought
Hot weather all summer. (6)

1774 August 26 (reported)
Italy
Heat and drought
No rain for 2 months, Turin; ‘hottest weather ever known’. (6)

1774
August 26
Greek Archipelago
Gale
Russian squadron wrecked; over 400 killed. (32)

1774 August 28
Lancing, Sussex
Tornado
Buildings and trees fell. (32)

1774
September 10
Altdorf, Switzerland
Earthquake
Houses thrown down; landslides. (52)

1774 September 24
Spain, Italy
Sea disturbance
Sea ebbed & flowed 2 feet perpendicular 3 times in 1 hour, Malaga; also at Leghorn about same hour. (32)

1774 November 20
Batavia
Earthquakes
‘Several great earthquakes’ to Jan. 4, 1775; many houses fell. (7)

1774 November 28
Europe
Snow & cold
Snow 10 feet deep, Auvergne; deep snow, Stockholm; intense cold, Germany. (6)

1774 December 11
Portugal
Flood
River Douoro rose 15 feet in 7 hours. (33)

1774 December 17 (reported)
England
Gales
Many shipwrecks all round English coasts. (6)

1775 February 1
England
Gale
Gale with ‘vast rain’ did much damage on sea and land. (13, 45)

1775 February 4

Hungary
Flood
Danube drowned 17 villages and inhabitants. (33)

1775
April 27
Kent, England
Halo complex
2 haloes, arcs, 6 parhelia. (41)

1775 April 30
Northampton and Buckingham
Thunderstorms
Trees torn up, houses unroofed. (33)

1774 May 13
Murcia, Spain
Hailstorm
Orange-sized stones; storm lasted 20 minutes. (7)

1775
July 1 & 2
Guatemala
Earthquake
City again ruined; Pacaya volcano erupted. (7)

1775 July 30
Somerset, England
Tornado
Houses unroofed. (7)

1775 August 21
Worcestershire
Tornado
Houses unroofed near Kidderminster. (7)

1775 August 21
Wales
Flood
Rain flood, Glamorgan, Bridgend bridge carried away. (7)

1775
September 2
North Carolina
Hurricane
163 killed. (56)

1775 September 2
Ireland
Tornado
A tornado up to half a mile wide damaged houses and uprooted trees at Belfast. (67)

1775 September 8
England & Wales
Earthquake
Bath, Worcester, Salisbury, Dorchester, Swansea, Gloucester, Wolverhampton, etc. Houes fell, Swansea. (7)

1775 September 11
Newfoundland
Storm surge?
Sea rose suddenly 30 feet, St. John’s; 700 boats, 11 ships and their crews lost. (7)

1775 October 19
England
Gale and rain
‘Dreadful storm’ for 48 hours; many shipwrecks all round coasts. (7)

1775 November 14
England and Holland
Gale
Coasts ‘covered with wrecks’; sea flooded Holland. Over 2,500 lost at sea in this and Oct.19 gale. (7)

1775 December 30
France
Earthquake
Buildings damaged, Caen. (34)

1776 January 7
England
Snow
'Greatest fall in memory of man’. (34)

1776
January 28
Rochester, Kent
Cold
Medway estuary froze. Temp. minus 3½° F. (11)

1776 January 31
Guatimala
Volcano
Pacayita erupts; lava devastated 40 leagues of country. (34)

1776 January - February
Russia
Mild winter
“Mildest ever known’. (34)

1776 February 27
Malta
Earthquake
Cathedral dome split. (52)

1776
February 29
Vesuvius, Italy
Volcano
Lava flows. (34)

1776 March 25
France
Hailstorm and flood
Tremont flooded in half an hour; several persons drowned. (8)

1776 April 21
Mexico
Earthquake
City of Acapulco ‘ruined’. (52)


1776 summer
Ohio
Earthquake
Lasted 2 or 3 minutes. 'Summer’. (15)

1776
June 17
Antwerp, Belgium
Hailstorm
Men and horses knocked down and hurt.

1776 July 10
Italy
Earthquake
Shock lasting 15 minutes threw down most houses in Andreis. (34)

1776
August 4
Carcassone, France
Earthquake
Great damage (52)

1776 October 27
England
Earthquake
Northampton, Peterborough, Loughborough, etc. ‘Fireballs’ seen at same time. (8, 18)

1776
December 23
Hampshire, England
Aurora
'Strong auroras' despite bright moon. (45)

1777 February 24
Yorkshire
Sea disturbance
Sea rose and caused much damage to ships, Whitby. (36)

1777 May 28 (reported)
Scandinavia
Mild winter
Winter so mild as to be a ‘prodigy’, Lapland. (35)

1777 June 6
Italy
Earthquake
Many houses fell, La Puglia, Calabria and Sicily. (52)

1777 July 15

Yorkshire, England
Flood
Fatal 'cloudburst' flooded Holmfirth. (65)


1777 September 10
Pennsylvania, United States
Fall
‘Shooting star’ seen to fall; gelatinous sparkling mass found. (14)

1777 September 10
Russia
Storm flood
River Neva rose 14 feet during storm and flooded St. Petersburg; many drowned. (9)

1777 September 14
England
Earthquake
Centre near Rochdale; shook 9,000 square miles. (18)

1777
September 24
Hampshire, England
Aurora
'Vivid aurora’. (45)

1777 September 26 (reported)
Cape Verde Islands
Drought
famine after 2 years’ drought. May Isle ‘lost over 5,000 inhabitants’. (38)

1777 October 9 (reported)
Africa
Earthquake
French settlement of ‘Goree’, much damage. Harbour choked. (10)

1777 October 16
Italy
Storm flood
Rain, hail, thunder, torrents from mountains near Florence. (37)

1777
November 14
Sundval, Sweden
Earthquake
Sea disturbance and river flood. (52)

1777
November 15
Tuscany
Storm
With floods, lightning, hail and earthquake. (35)

1777
November 22
Hampshire, England
Aurora
'Strong aurora' with red streaks. (45)

1777
December3
Hampshire, England
Aurora
'Vast auroras', also on 4th. (45)

1777 December 21
Ireland
Thaw flood
Dublin flooded; St. Patrick’s cathedral badly damaged. (39)

1778 January 18
Transylvania
Earthquake
Church thrown down, many killed. (52)

1778
June 16
Hispaniola
Earthquake
Many killed; seismic sea wave. (39)

1778 June 24
Massachusetts
Total solar eclipse
“Ist total eclipse observed in USA’. (60)

1778
July 3
Smyrna, Turkey
Earthquake
Many shocks, much damage. (39)

1778 August
Orkney
Gale
Gale destroyed whole harvest. (47)

1778
September 22
Hampshire, England
Aurora
'Vast aurora, very red’; reached zenith. (45)

1778 October 1
Smyrna
Earthquake
‘Fresh ruins’, more damage in Oct. and Nov. (52)

1778 October 28
France, Germany
Floods
Great floods after rain, Iser, Moselle. (39)

1778
December 26
Pennsylvania, etc.
Blizzard
'Hessian Storm’. (51)

1779 January 1
England
Gale
Great damage in S. of England. (13, 42)

1779
February 15
Hampshire, England
Aurora
'Red belt from E to W.' (45)

1779
April 3
Edinburgh, Scotland
Lunar halo?
'Remarkable halo', greenish-blue colour.

1779
June 2
Aberdeenshire
Whirlwind
Water-devil 'high as tallest trees’. (46)

1779
June 7
Bologna, Italy
Earthquake
Many 'luminous globes in air’. (52)

1779
August 5
Vesuvius, Italy
Volcano
‘Column of fire 2 miles high’. Ash fell 100 miles away on Aug. 8. (43)

1779
December 28
Eastern USA
Snowstorm
Great snowstorm begins 'Hard Winter’. (51)

1780 January 9
Belgium
Rain flood
50,000 acres under water near Bruges. (43)

1780 January 14

Glasgow, Scotland
Cold
Temp. of minus 46° F. (43)

1780 February 27
Malta
Earthquake
3 violent shocks; several persons crushed in panic. (43)

1780
February 29
Europe
Aurora
Arch with rays from Turin, Italy. (43, 45)

1780
April 11
Beeston, Notts.
Meteorites?
Meteor, several stones said to have fallen. (44)

1780
May 9
Bologna, Italy
Earthquake
'Extraordinary mass of vapour', Sicily. (52)

1780
May 19
New England
Dark day
Soot-coloured rain fell. See
here (50)

1780 June 15
Selborne, Hampshire
Aurora?
“Vivid aurora to the W.’ Noctilucent clouds? (45)

1780
July 28
Hampshire, England
Aurora?
'Vast lights in the air from all quarters’. (45)

1780
August 24
Louisiana
Hurricane
Every vessel on Mississippi sunk. (59)

1780
September 17
Sussex, England
Ball lightning
Fireballs fell into sea, 2 killed by ‘rocket-like body’. (1, 43)

1780 September 29
Holland
Hailstorm
100,000 windows broken, The Hague. (43)

1780
October
Crete
Earthquake
Castle and 13 villages swallowed up. (52)

1780
October 3
West Indies
Hurricane
Phoenix Hurricane, 20,000 killed. (56)

1780
October 10
West Indies
Hurricane
'Great Hurricane'. Over 19,000 killed. (59)

1780 October 15
Gulf of Mexico
Hurricane
Spanish fleet lost; 2,000 drowned. (19)

1780
October 15
London
Tornado
With gale said to be ex-Great Hurricane. (43, 45)

1780 October 27
Maine, USA
Total solar eclipse
Expedition observed eclipse at Penobscot; just outside total zone but recorded ‘Baily’s Beads’. (66)