LANDMARKS OF WORLD HISTORY
A Chronology of Remarkable Natural Phenomena

Renaissance, 1501-1700

Numbers show sources

Date
Location
Phenomenon
Description

1500 June 10
Bologna, Italy
Lightning?
5 ‘thunderbolts’ fell, great damage. (88)

1500 June/July
Africa
Meteor shower
‘Stars fell like rain’. (126)

1500 July 2
Rome
Hail
Storm with hail 3 feet deep. Pope’s palace ruined. (88)

1502 July 1
Santo Domingo
Hurricane
Bobadilla's fleet sunk. (134)

1502 December 13 (c)
Near Panama
Waterspout
Spout passed between two of Columbus' ships. (90)

1503 June 4
England
Dry summer
‘No notable rain’ from June 4 to August 15. (73)

1504
China
Meteorite
'Large star' fell with noise like thunder. (89)

1504 February 29
Jamaica
Lunar eclipse
Columbus predicts eclipse to overawe natives.

1505 July 6
Afghanistan
Earthquake
Great earth disturbances. Shocks for 4 weeks: 33 in one day. (53, 94)

1506
Pouille
Ball lightning?
3 'suns' at night amid clouds and lightning Doubtful date. (73)

1506 January 13
England, France
Cold
Sea froze at Marseilles, Thames frozen through January. (15)

1506 September 3
China
Comet
Comet ‘like a great ball’, later like a broom. (143)

1507
Santorin
Earthquake
Part of island sank into sea.

1508 (before)
Milan, Italy
Tornado
Da Vinci observes vortex. (114)

1508 July 13
Greek Archipelago
Earthquake
Many shocks. (88, 94)

1508 August 3
Santo Domingo
Hurricane
Most houses destroyed, 20 ships lost. (134)

1508 September 19
Britain
Earthquake
In England and Scotland. (15)

1509 July 29
Santo Domingo
Hurricane
City destroyed. (134)

1509 September 14
Turkey
Earthquake
Sea invaded Constantinople. Many towns ruined. (88, 94)

1509 September 26
Holland
Sea flood
Storm flood. Much loss of life. (86)

1510 June 10
Bavaria
Earthquake
Nordlingen. 2,000 killed. (88, 94)

1510 July 25
Hekla, Iceland
Volcano
Stones flung 40 km. Lava killed several. (19, 137)

1510 August 7
Bologna, Italy
Earthquake and storm
Two shocks. Windstorm destroyed houses. (88)

1511 September 4
Cremona, Italy
Meteorites
Many stones fell; man and animals killed. One stone 100 lbs. Apparently hailstorm at same time. (25, 64, 88)

1512 August 24
Rome
Hailstorm
Egg-sized stones. Many animals killed. (88)

1513 July 21
England
Heat
‘Dry Wednesday'. Several died of heat. (15)

1513 September 30
Switzerland
Landslide, flood
Fall dammed R. Brenno; lake burst May 1515. 600 killed. (5)

1514 January
London
Cold
Thames frozen. (15)

1514 July 3
Dicomano, Italy
Tornado
Trees uprooted, church unroofed. (88)

1515 July 19
Central Europe
Rain floods
6 weeks of rain. Extensive floods. (5)

1516
Abdus River, China
Meteorites
1,200 stones fell. Some of 120 lbs. (64)

1516 September
England
Drought
Lasted until May 1517

1517 January 12
England
Severe winter
Great frost began. Thames frozen. (44)

1517 January 15
Valence, France
Snow
3 feet of snow in streets.

1517 June 26
Nordlingen, Bavaria
Earthquake?
Produced great ruins on a 2-mile path. Perhaps with or only a tornado. (94, 150)

1518 March 23
Béziers, France
Snow
6 inches of snow.

1520
Erdfut
Tornado?
Rotating 'burning beam', much damage. (139)

1520 May 26
Oliva-Gandia, Spain
Meteorite
2 stones fell. (64)

1521 August
Mexico
Tornado
“Whirlwind’ in storm over city of Tiatelolco became waterspout on lake.

1522
Florence, Italy
Fall
'Manna' fell everywhere in hot summer. (88)

1523 March 13
Holland
Thunderstorm
Hens' egg sized hail, violent winds. (5)

1523 November
England
Cold winter
Frostbite; deaths by cold.

1524 December 30
Scotland
Gale
6-day tempest destroyed many buildings. (68)

1526 October 4
West Indies
Hurricane
Great damage in Puerto Rico and Santo Domingo. (134)

1527
Guatemala
Volcano
Volcan de Aqua destroyed city. (100)

1527 April 12
England
Rain
Every day until June 3. (5)

1527 October 11
Europe
Aurora?
Described by Ambroise Pare as a ‘horrible comet”. (50)

1528 July
France
Rain
Corn and vines destroyed. (44)

1529 February 5
China
Comet
Extended across sky. (143)

1529 June 15
Germany
Flood
“St. Vitus’ Torrent’ in south Germany after 4 days’ rain. “Many persons perished’. (150)

1529 July 3
Italy
Earthquake and fall
Earthquake in Upper Italy, followed by a ‘blood-rain’ in Cremona. (150)

1530 February
Switzerland
Mild winter
No snow, St. Gallen, flowers in February. (127)

1530 April 13
Damascus
Sunspots?
'Two eyes and brows' on Sun. (126)

1530 September 1
Venezuela
Earthquake
Fort and many houses fell, clefts opened. (118)

1530 October 8
Rome
Flood
12,000 drowned, 600 houses lost. (5)

1530 November 4
Holland
Sea flood
400,000 drowned.

1531 January 26
Lisbon, Portugal
Earthquake
Many buildings fell, sea agitated. (94)

1531 August 24
China, Europe
Halley's Comet
Perihelion, reddish tail. (102)

1532
Europe
Aurora? Meteor shower?
‘Flying dragons’ seen in many countries; sometimes 400 at once. (9)

1532 November 2
North Sea
Sea flood
Denmark to Flanders. (86)

1533
Ecuador
Volcano
Cotopaxi flung 200 ton stone 10 miles. (105)

1535 April 21
Sweden
Halo complex
22° halo, arcs, parhelia. (106)

1536 March 23
Mt. Etna, Sicily
Volcano
Great eruption.

1537 January 6
Florence, Italy
Aurora?
Beam of fire at night. (80)

1537 August 15
Austria, Italy
Hail
28 lb. stones, Bologna, men killed, Austria. (5)

1538 January 9
China, Europe
Comet
Tail 45° long. (143)

1538 September 28
Naples, Italy
Ground uplift
Village of Pozzuoli rose 22 feet in 48 hours. (125)

1538 September 29
Italy
Volcano
Monte Nuovo formed and was 440 feet high in 8 days. (100, 129)

1539
England
Hot summer
Great heat and drought, agues killed many. (44)

1540
Central Europe
Warm year
Sunniest for 500 years, glaciers melted. (127)

1540 March 23
S. France
Cold
Vines frozen.

1540? April 28
Limousin, France
Meteorites?
Stone size of barrel fell in hailstorm, 2 ells into ground. (64)

1540 summer
England
Drought
Water at London Bridge salt. (44)

1540 November 26
Lunar event
'Star' on dark part of Moon 2 nights; 'flames' on 2nd night. (98)

1541 summer
England
Drought
Rivers dried up, cattle died of thirst. Dysentery killed 1,000s. (15)

1541 September 11
Guatemala
Volcano
Mudflow from Agua destroyed Guatemalan capital. (33, 61))

1542
Merioneth, Wales
Anomalous phenomenon
‘Livid fire or vapour’ made great devastation, also in 1564. (52)

1542 December 12
Sicily
Earthquake
Several towns ruined. (94)

1543
Venezuela
Earthquake
Cumana destroyed. (118)

1543 April 20
Mississippi
Flood
River 40 leagues wide. (5)

1545
Lyons
Hail
Men and beasts killed. Stones larger than lemons. (109)

1545 June 25
England
Hail
Fist-sized stones, Lancashire. (73)

1545 September 6
Europe
Earthquake
Throughout Europe. (94)

1546
Palestine
Earthquake
With seismic sea wave. (94)

1547 April 23
Europe
Obscuration
Red Sun for 2 days and stars appeared at noon. (22, 71)

1548 November 6
Thuringia
Bolide
Detonating meteor. Clotted blood fell. (64)

1549 April
Europe?
Anomalous phenomenon
‘Globe all on fire’ in afternoon for 3 days. (4)

1550
Italy
Earthquake
Ariano swallowed up. (94)

1551 January 28
Lisbon, Portugal
Aurora and earthquake
'Red rods' in the air preceded shock. (94)

1552 May 19
Schleusinger and Munich, Bavaria
Meteorites?
‘Fall of white flints’ made ‘great ravages’. (48, 64)
Possibly a hailstorm.

1554
Iceland
Earthquakes
Violent shocks for 2 weeks; people lived in tents. (67)

1554 March 21
Belgium
Earthquake
Subterranean noise. More shocks in April. (94)

1554 May
Iceland
Volcano
Lava flow from fissure near Hekla. (19)

1554 May 5
Korea
Aurora
Fire like vapour in South. (146)

1555
Yugoslavia
Earthquake
Skopje wrecked. (53)

1556
Gloucestershire, England
Ball lightning
8 killed by 'fiery sulphureous globe' indoors. (77)

1556 January 23
China
Earthquake
830,000 killed. Loess cave houses collapsed. (140)

1556 January 24
E. Europe
Earthquake
26 towns ruined. (94)

1556 September 23
Malta
Waterspout
War fleet sunk and 600 drowned. Uncertain date. (110)

1557 March 3
France
Ball lightning?
‘Oscillating flame’ moved round Dauphin of France’s bedroom.

1557 October
Alcmaria
Miasma
‘Stinking clouds’ followed by epidemic of malignant fever. (128)

1558 July 7
England
Tornado
7 killed at Nottingham. (73)

1559
Hungary
Meteorites
5 pieces of iron the size of a human head fell Miskolcz. (64, 69)

1560 January 30
England
Aurora
'Burning spears’.

1560 June 2
France
Coloured rain
Red rain at Louvaine. Also Embden. (42)

1560 December 24
Lillebourne
Meteor?
Set fire to magazine. (42, 64)

1560 December 27
Germany
Aurora
Great brilliancy. (50)

1561 April 14
Germany
Anomalous phenomenon
Globes, crosses and tubes near Sun, Nuremburg. (82, 133)

1561 May 17
Torgau, Prussia
Meteorites
3 stones fell. Weight 39 lbs. (64, 69)

1563 January 4
England
Tornado
Houses fell at Leicester. (73)

1563 December
Bergen, Norway
Aurora
Auroral sounds reported. (50)

1564 July
France
Earthquake
7 villages destroyed, Nice and Provence.

1564 October 7
England
Aurora
'Flames of fire' in N. (73)

1564 December 25
England
Cold winter
Thames frozen in London to January 4, 1565. (73)

1565
Guatimala
Earthquake
Volcano Paraya erupted.

1566 June 19
Europe
Floods
Serious floods on Rhine, Danube, Drau, Save, etc. Lasted a month. (5)

1566 August
Basel, Switzerland
Anomalous phenomenon
Dark spheres around the Sun. Turned red and went out. (82)

1567 April 9
Rome
Solar eclipse
Circle of light round Sun. (24)

1568 March 18
London
Gale
Many vessels sunk on Thames. (15)

1569 October 30
Nottinghamshire., England
Tornado
60 yards wide, lasted 7 minutes. Destroyed all in its path. (15)

1570
St. Jago, Chile
Earthquake
Sea retreated, great landslips.

1570 January 12
Bohemia
Aurora
Torches and pillars. (50)

1570 November 1
North Sea coast
Sea flood
400,000 drowned. (86)

1571
France
Severe winter
All French rivers frozen. (99)

1571
Embden
Fall
‘Red mineral shower’ fell over 10 0r 12 leagues. (48)

1571
Hesse
Fall??
’Shower of fire’ flowed through streets after explosion. (480)

1572 January 6
Prussia
Earthquake
With ' fall of aerolites’.

1572 November 1
England
Cold winter
Deep snows and freezing rains to January 6.

1572 November 11
Europe
Supernova
In Cassiopeia; equalled Venus. Tycho's Star. (39)

1573 February 2
Switzerland
Cold
Lake Constance frozen for 60 days. (127)

1574 October 1
Holland
Sea flood
20,000 Spanish troops drowned.

1574 November
Europe
Cold winter
Rhine frozen, great snow till April.

1574 November 14
London
Aurora
'Burning clouds' N. to S for 2 nights. (50)

1575 February 13
Brabant
Aurora
Spears and armies in the air. Again September 25. (15)

1575 September 28
Louvain
Aurora
“Bright arches, spears, rays every way’. (99)

1575 December 16
Valdivia, Chile
Earthquake
With seismic sea wave. (144)

1577 March 17
Yorkshire, England
Tornado
Buildings overthrown. (73)

1577 August 4
England
Tornado?
'Black dog' entered Suffolk churches. (62)

1577 November 8
China, Europe
Comet
Nucleus bright as Moon, tail over 60° long. (145)

1577 November 30
Mexico
Earthquake
'Very remarkable earthquake’.

1578
Bergen, Norway
Fall
Yellow mice fell. Again in 1579. (97)

1578 February 4
England
Snow
People and cattle lost. Snow to February 8.

1578 February 22
Korea
Comet
Stretched across heavens. (143)

1578 April 25
Switzerland
Late cold
Cold spell lasted till end of May. Vierwaldtstaettersee frozen. (127)

1578 May 6
England
Late snow
Funeral dug a way to Broad Chalk church. (15)

1578 November
China
Comet
Tail 90° long.

1579 February 4
England
Cold spell
Incessant snow from 4th to 8th, many people and cattle lost. (128)

1579 April 24
England
Late snow
Snow 2 feet deep in London. Snowed till 8th. (15)

1580
Azores
Volcano
Sao Jorge erupts. Nuee ardentes. (84)

1580 April 6
England
Earthquake
2 killed in London. Also France, etc. (66)

1580 May 1
Europe
Earthquake
Holland, Germany, England 'Very considerable’. (94)

1580 May 27
Nörten, Germany
Meteorite
Shower of stones. (64)

1580 October 1
China, Europe
Comet
Tail stretched across Milky Way. (143)

1581 July 26
Thuringia
Meteorite
39 lb. stone fell. (112)

1581 August 27
Lithuania
Aurora
Pillars and crosses in sky. (50)

1582
Peru
Earthquake
Arequipa ruined.

1582 May 13
Japan
Comet
Tail over 100° long

1582 August 12
Norfolk, England
Tornado
Tempest of lightning and whirlwind. Houses destroyed. (73)

1582 September
China
Comet
Blue; stretched over sky.

1583 January 9
Italy
Meteorite
33 lb. stone fell at Castrovillari. (69)

1584
Switzerland
Landslide
300 killed at Yvorne.

1584 March1
Switzerland
Earthquake
Also Italy. Lake Geneva much agitated. (94)

1584 July 24
England
Lightning, hail, floods
Many men and cattle killed. (15)

1586
Guatimala
Earthquake
City ruined. Fuego volcano erupted. (94)

1586 July 9
Peru
Earthquake
Sea wave flooded land. (94)

1586 September
Japan
Earthquake
With seismic sea wave. Great earth clefts. (94)

1586 October 8
England
Gale
Houses and trees destroyed. (15)

1586 December 15
Germany
Bolide
Black and red dust fell at Verdun. (64)

1587 March 5
England
Lunar event?
'Star' in body of Moon. (147)

1587 July 2
Augsburg, Germany
Tornado
Funnel cloud seen in thunderstorm. First tornado picture. (76)

1587 September
Holland
Floods
Holland 'under water'. Plague and famine. (128)

1587 October
Korea
Comet
Tail 60° long.

1588 March 25
France
Earthquake
Yellow 'smoke' for hours.

1590 September 15
Austria, Hungary, Silesia, Moravia, Bohemia etc.
Earthquake
Vienna, Prague damaged. (94)

1590 December 7
West Africa
Sunspot
'Great black spot' on Sun. Seen at sea. (126)

1591 July 26
Azores
Earthquake
Land and sea disturbances. (94)

1592
Austria
Cold winter
Wolves entered Vienna and attacked men and beasts.

1594
Europe
Rains
‘Incessant rains’, four years’ famine. (85)

1594 March 1
Italy
Meteorites
Shower of stones fell at Crelvacore. (69)

1594 March 30
England
Gales
1,000s of trees fell. (132)

1594 winter
Europe
Cold winter
Lagoons of Venice froze. Thaw February 1595. (5)

1595 March 12
Colombia
Volcano
Mudflows after eruption killed 636, Nevado del Ruiz. (125)

1595 June 25
France
River burst
Ice fall blocked River Dranse; dam burst drowned 140. (85)

1596 July 22
Japan
Earthquake
Sea rose; rain of ashes. Towns ruined. (94)

1596 December 6
England
Ball lightning?
Dark, football-sized 'thing' exploded in Wells church. (77)

1597 January 3
Hekla, Iceland
Volcano
18 craters on fissure. (19)

1598 March 7
Hungary
Solar eclipse
Ring of light round Moon. (24)

1600
France
Glacier
Advancing glaciers in Chamonix ruined houses and land. (85)

1600 February 6 - March 5
Peru
Volcano
Explosion of Huainaputina, Tambo River dammed by debris. (55, 58)

1600 July 20
Tyrol
River burst
Vernagt glacier blocked river, great floods when dam burst. (85)

1601 (c.)
Unknown
Volcano
Great eruption created haze over Scandinavia.

1601 June
England
Cold summer
“Frosts every morning’ in June. (130)

1601 September 8
Europe
Earthquake
Almost all Europe and part of Asia. (94)

1601 December 24
Bergen, Norway
Annular solar eclipse
Longomontanus describes annularity. (131)

1603 September 19
Germany and Switzerland
Bolide
Detonating meteor. (64)

1604 October 9
China, Europe
Supernova
Discovery date. Kepler's Star. (39)

1605 October 12
Italy
Total solar eclipse
Kepler describes corona. (24, 131)

1605 November 17
Spain
Aurora?
“Great signs’ in the sky. (50)

1606
Germany
Drought
No rain for 7 months.

1606
Japan
Earthquake
Mountain rose from sea in one night. (94)

1606 March 27
Belgium
Gale
Most buildings unroofed. (5)

1607 January 27
Severn, England
Sea flood
Hundreds drowned. Tsunami? (3)

1607 February
Switzerland
Mild winter
Violets bloomed in February. (127)

1607 May 28
Prague
Sunspot
Seen by projection, Kepler. (60)

1607 October 27
China, Europe, Maine
Halley's Comet
Perihelion. Long bright tail. (21, 102)

1607 December 1
England
Severe winter
Frost fair on Thames. To February 1608. (5, 15)

1608 January 20
Britain
Severe winter
Firth of Forth froze. 'Great Winter’. (87)

1608 May 15
Dantzig
Cold spring
Ditches still frozen. (5)

1608 November 8
Scotland
Earthquake
Felt Dundee, Edinburgh, Glasgow, Aberdeen, etc. (45)

1609
China
Comet
‘Great star’ in SW, tail with 4 rays. (143)

1609 June
England
Moon
First observation by telescope, Thomas Harriot. (133)

1609 October
England
Severe winter
Frost lasted 4 months. Thames frozen.

1610 June 22
France
Glacier advance
La Rosiére glacier crushed 5 houses. (85)

1610 July 6
Europe
Lunar eclipse
First observed by telescope. (142)

1610 September 12
England
Lunar map
Thomas Harriot draws the first telescopic Moon map. (40)

1610 November
Italy
Sunspots
Galileo claims first telescopic sunspot observation.

1611 December 2
Sanriku, Japan
Earthquake
5,000 drowned, 80 ft. tsunami.

1612 November 8
Crete
Earthquake
Buildings thrown down. Also Germany to December 7. (94)

1612 November 12
England
Comet
Morning comet in the S.E. (36)

1612 December 15
Europe
Galaxy
Simon Marius makes first telescopic observation of Andromeda Nebula. (99)

1612 December 18
Italy
Planet
Galileo observes Neptune and records its motion. (45)

1613 May 29
Thuringia
Cloudburst
For 11 hours. Great floods also in Saxony, Bohemia, Austria. (5)

1614 January 16
England
Severe winter
Snow and frost till March 7. (5)

1614 autumn
Iceland
Earthquakes
Severe shocks throughout autumn. Houses thrown down. (67)

1615 winter
Iceland
Severe winter
Ice round S.E. coast. Many haloes and parhelia. (129)

1615 May 1
England
Late snow
Snow 1 foot deep, Derbyshire. (15)

1616 June
Switzerland
Hot summer
Hottest for 500 years. 50 days' drought. (127)

1618 August
Styria
Meteorites
'Blood' and stones fell. 3 stones, each about 100 lbs. (64)

1618 August 25
Hungary
Comet
Lost to naked eye Sept. 6, then followed telescopically. (81)

1618 August 25
Switzerland, Italy
Earthquake
Mt. Conto in the Grisons fell, 1,200 killed. Slide in Chiavenna, Italy, killed 2,427. (94)

1618 September 4
Switzerland
Rockfall
1,500 killed in Plurs. (105)

1618 November 16
Europe
Comet
Tail 70° long. (81)

1618 December 5
China
Comet
‘Star like white flower’ in morning. (143)

1619 February 14
China
Comet
Tail 100° long. (81)

1619 July
Hekla, Iceland
Volcano
Ash fell in Norway. (18)

1620 June 15
Europe
Lunar eclipse
Moon vanished in totality. (35)

1620 December 9
Europe
Lunar eclipse
Moon vanished in totality. (35)

1621 April 10
Jalandhar, India
Meteorite
Iron fall. Made into weapons. (69)

1621 September 2
France
Aurora
All over France.

1622
Europe
Cold winter
All European rivers and Zuyder Zee froze.

1623 January 10
Devon, England
Meteorite
10 lb. stone fell at Stretchleigh. (69)

1623 March 24
Norway
Earthquake
'More violent than any remembered’. (94)

1623 November 17
Germany
Meteor
'Burning globe' at sunset. (64)

1624
Azores
Earthquake
Island 1½ leagues long rose near St. Michel. (94)

1625 spring
Iceland
Severe winter
‘Ice-sheet winter’. Haloes in spring. (129)

1625 September 2
Katla, Iceland
Volcano
Subglacial eruption. Ash fell Norway. (19)

1626 June 12
London
Waterspout
On river at Westminster. (26)

1626 July 30
Italy
Earthquake
30 towns wrecked, 17,000 killed. (94)

1627
Apulia
Flood
16,000 drowned. (128)

1627
Phillipines
Earthquake
Mountain 'levelled' in Cagayan province. (94)

1627 November 27
Nice, France
Meteorite
59 lbs. stone fell. (99)

1628 April 9
England
Meteorites
3 stones fell, Oxfordshire. Largest 26 lb. (69)

1628 August 28
Pleurs, Italy
Landslide
2,200 killed. (123)

1630 September 2
Azores
Volcano
St. Michel. Damage and fatalities. (61)

1630 November 29
Alsace
Meteorite
300 lbs. stone fell. (128)

1631 November 7
Europe
Transit
First observation of a transit of Mercury, by Gassendi. (16)

1631 December 16
Vesuvius, Italy
Volcano
Lava and nuee ardentes, 4,000 killed. (32, 51, 84)

1633
Ethiopia
Volcano?
'Eruption of a mountain’.

1633 winter
Iceland
Earthquakes
‘Incessant rockings’, farms wrecked. (67)

1633 August 21
France
Flood
Allalin glacier-burst destroyed 18 houses, a bridge, and 6,000 trees. (85)

1634 August 15
Messina, Italy
Mirage
First description of the Fata Morgana mirage. (41)

1634 October 11
North Sea
Sea flood
Great storm flood, Germany, Denmark, 6,000 drowned. (86, 99)

1634 October 27
Belgium
Meteorites
Several stones, to 8 lbs. (69)

1634 December
Mt. Etna, Sicily
Volcano
Eruption until 1638. (94)

1635 January 29
England, Scotland
Blizzard
Many travellers perished. (138)

1635 June (or July 7)
Italy
Meteorite
‘Blazing mass’ dashed across sky. A large stone fell near Verona. (64, 121)

1636 January 25
Azores
Volcano
St. Michel. New island formed. (94)

1636 March 6
Silesia
Meteorite
Large stone fell. (112)

1636 May 8
Hekla, Iceland
Volcano
Eruption from 13 craters. (19, 137)

1637 November 29
France
Meteorite
38 lbs. stone fell at Mount Vaison. (64)

1638
Java
Volcano
Raung Volcano eruption killed 1,000s.

1638 January 25
Azores
Volcano
Submarine eruption created a new island. (84, 94)

1638 March 27
Italy and Sicily
Earthquake
Sea retired 2 miles at Pizzo, 180 towns wrecked. (94)

1638 June 2
New England
Earthquake
Houses thrown down. (94)

1638 October 21
Devon, England
Tornado
Several killed in church at Widecombe.

1639
China
Meteorite?
Stone fell, destroyed many houses. Many people killed. (89)

1639 November 29
England
Transit of Venus. See here
First observation, by Horrocks.

1640
Chile
Aurora
Aurora Australis.

1640 January 27
England
Aurora
Streams from dark arch. (34)

1640 April 4
Europe
Earthquake
France, Belgium, Holland, Germany. (94)

1640 July 31
Japan
Volcano
Great eruption of Komaga-take; avalanche caused sea wave which drowned 700. (61)

1641 January 4
Phillipines
Volcano
Great eruption of Mount Parker; total darkness at 2 pm. (55)

1642 April 14
Europe
Lunar eclipse
Moon invisible at totality. (142)

1642 May 28 (reported)
France
Glacier
Chamonix glacier advances ‘over a musket shot’ every day. (85)

1642 June
Germany
Fall
Burning fist-sized sulphur lumps fell on Loburg Castle. (31)

1642 August 4
England
Meteorite
4 lb. stone fell in Suffolk. (69)

1642 December 2 (or 12)
Ofen, Hungary
Meteorite
'Mass' fell. 'Doubtful’. (64, 69)

1643
Europe
Sunspots
Across one-third of Sun.

1643 January 9
Europe
Planet
Riccioli observes ‘Ashen Light’ on dark side of Venus. (17)

1643 March 10
S. England
Aurora
Shining cloud like sword. (117)

1643 April 12
New Guinea
Earthquake
Several shocks. (94)

1645 February 12
Norway
Whirlpool
Maelstrom raged. (54, 115)

1645 November 30
Phillipines
Earthquake
Most stone buildings fell. Many ground movements. (5)

1646 April 5
Constantinople
Earthquake
Wave stranded 136 ships. (94)

1646 May 16
Hasnia, Italy?
Fall
Rain with sulphur. Powder found. (5)

1647?
Rochefort
Meteorite?
8lb. stone fell on ship, killing 2 men. (64)

1647 February 18
Saxony
Meteorite
50 lbs. stone fell at Zwickau. (64)

1647 August
Westphalia
Meteorites
Several stones fell. (64)

1648
Europe
Noctilucent clouds?
Maignon describes luminous clouds. (28)

1649 (c.)
Cheshire, England
Ball lightning?
‘Purplish nebecula’ entered Loughton Church in storm; many killed. (141)

1649 September 1
Hamburg
Meteor
Moved in bounds. (64)

1650 March
Santorin Island
Earthquake
Many houses damaged; landslides. (6, 92)

1650 April
England
Earthquake
Cumberland and Westmorland shaken. People fled to fields. Year also given as 1651, (47)

1650 September 24
Santorin Island
Volcano
New island rose and disappeared in eruption. (94)

1650 November 30
England
Anomalous phenomenon
‘Fiery sword’ in S.W. about sunrise, Gloucestershire. (30)

1652
Palma, Canaries
Volcano
Eruption on island. Also Azores eruption this year.

1652 April 8
Scotland
Total solar eclipse
Mirk Monday. (70)

1652 November 2
Europe
Comet
'Almost as large as Moon’. (36)

1653
Smyrna
Earthquake
3,000 killed.

1654 March 30
Denmark
Meteorites
Many stones fell at Fünen. (69)

1654 July 23
Italy
Earthquake
Many villages ruined.

1655 December 10
Scotland
Blizzard
Snow, wind and sea flood, Fifeshire. Houses fell, ships lost. (86)

1656
France
Floods
Many people and cattle drowned; bridges carried away. (128)

1657 June 21
England
Hot summer
Heat by day and night. (44)

1658 February 27
Europe
Cold winter
Great snow in Rome, February. (5)

1659 September 7
England
Tornado?
Pointed hailstones; ‘fiery eruptions’ wrecked houses and tree, Markfield, Leics. (49)

1660
France
Hail, falls
Stones of 1½ pounds weight. Also falls of blood-rain, frogs and ‘vermin’. (65)

1660 March 30
Dantzig
Halo complex
Hevelius observes two lunar haloes, mock moons, two arcs at summit of each halo.

1660 April
England
Fall
‘White ashes’ fell and covered ground, Derbyshire. (30)

1660 June 2
England
Tornado
Worthington, Leics. Trees uprooted. (65, 78)

1660 June 21
Pyrenees
Earthquake
Mountain sank and left lake. (94)

1660 November 3
Katla, Iceland
Volcano
Great destruction. Glacier-burst. (19)

1661 February 20
Gdansk
Halo complex
Two haloes, parhelic circle, arcs and 6 parhelia. (63)

1661 February 22
Europe
Sunspots
Spot group seen from February 22 to August 7, seven solar rotations. (130)

1661 March 21
London
Aurora
T’wo armies' in sky. (50)

1661 May 24
Hertfordshire, England
Tornado
A multiple-vortex tornado near Kensworth. (149)

1662
Oomi, Japan
Earthquake
Mountain sank and left level ground. (94)

1662 January 15
London
Mild winter
Like 'May or June’. (5)

1662 February 18
England
Gale
SW storm and thunder, 'Windy Tuesday’. (15)

1662 July 20
England
Tornado
'Pillar of smoke’; track 7 miles long, Cheshire. (30)

1662 November 11
England
Tornado
Houses and trees fell. ‘Flashes of fire’. (30)

1662 December 10
Novy-Ergi, Russia
Meteorite
Fireball, detonations, shower of stones.

1663 February 5
Canada
Earthquake
St.Laurence River. Quebec injured. (94)

1663 August 15
Russia
Anomalous phenomenon
Huge fireball over lake for 1½ hours, Robozero. (72)

1663 August 28
England
Summer cold
Great frost. ’No summer at all’. (15)

1664 February 19
England
Haloes
2 lunar haloes. (15)

1664 May 19
England
Planet
Hooke observes Jupiter’s Great Red Spot. (99)

1664 August 16
London
Thunderstorm
Intense lightning and rain. (5)

1664 December 22
England
Comet
A bright comet seen by Evelyn. (15)

1665 February 20
China
Sunspots
Two black spots on Sun. (130)

1665 March 21
Germany
Fall
Blue fibrous matter. (56)

1665 March 1
England
Comet
Brightest comet since 1618: Hooke suggests body is the same comet as that year. (37, 145)

1665 July 2
England
Tornado?
'Great grey ball' fell in Norfolk storm, much damage. 1 killed. (42)

1665 October 15
Canada
Earthquake
Preceded by very loud noise. (94)

1666 January 18
Hungary
Earthquake
Also shock in England, probably same date. (46, 94)

1666 April 21
Kent, England
Fall
2 acres at Cranstead covered in small fish after thunder. (15)

1666 August 4
West Indies
Hurricane
St. Christopher, Guadeloupe, Martinique. 2,000 troops lost at sea. (134)

1666 November
Assyria
Earthquake
5 towns and 45 villages ruined, 4 new mountains raised. (94)

1667
Schamakii
Earthquake
80,000 killed. Great earth movements. (94)

1667 March 18
Europe
Severe winter
German rivers and Zuider Zee froze, March 18-26. (5)

1667 April 6
Italy
Earthquake
5,000 killed, Ragusa. Submarine explosions. (94)

1667 August 27
Virginia
Hurricane
Jamestown wrecked.

1667 September 1
St. Kitts
Hurricane
Great damage. (5)

1667 October 23
Lincolnshire., England
Tornado
Many houses destroyed, 1 killed at Welbourn. (120)

1667 November
Caucasia
Earthquake
80,000 killed. (94)

1668
East Anglia, England
Sand advance
Sand dunes buried village of Stanton Downham. (55)

1668 March 5
Europe
Comet
Tail 'of stupendous length' . (81, 93)

1668 June 21
Italy
Meteorites
Fireball and shower of stones, Vago Verona, up to 136 Kg. (69)

1668 August 17
Turkey
Earthquake
6,000 killed.

1668 November
Boston, Massachusetts.
Lunar event?
'Star' in body of Moon between horns. (14)

1669 March 11
Etna, Sicily
Volcano
Lava flow from fissure destroyed 50 towns, 20,000 killed. (105, 124)

1669 March 17
France
Fall
Stinking red liquid fell at Chatillion. (101)

1670 June 20
England
Halo complex
7 'circles of light', 8 parhelia.

1670 July 11
China
Meteorite
House damaged by fall. (89)

1670 July 17
Europe
Earthquake
Innsbruck, Venice, Augsburg, Nuremburg, etc. Shocks for several days. (94)

1671 February 27
Ortenau, Germany
Meteorite
10 lb. stone fell. (69)

1671 March 31
Schamaki
Earthquake
Vast numbers of fireballs fell from sky. (94)

1671 December 9
S. England
Freezing rain
Great tree damage. (15)

1672
Greek Islands
Earthquake
Stanichio Island. 'swallowed up' with inhabitants. (94)

1672 April 14
Italy
Earthquake
1,500 killed. (94)

1672 August 29
Bedford, England
Tornado
Houses ‘levelled’ in Bedford and Woburn. Clouds ‘fighting one against the other’. (152)

1673
Canary Islands
Volcano
Showers of fire and stones. (94)

1673 May 20
Indonesia
Volcano
Gamkonora erupts. Tsunamis. (61)

1674
Sweden?
Meteorite
Two Swedish sailors killed by a meteorite aboard ship. (151)

1674 August 1
Holland
Tornadoes
Utrecht cathedral damaged. (2)

1674 October 6
Glarus, Switzerland
Meteorites
2 large stones fell. (69)

1675 June 28
Europe
Cold summer
‘Horribly cold’ in Provence, June 28. (85)

1676 March 21
Italy
Meteor
Larger than Moon, 40 miles up, speed 9,600 mph. (64)

1676 July 27
England
Sunspot
Observed by Flamsteed. (130)

1676 September 22
England
Meteor
Seen in most of England. (11, 15)

1677 May 28
Germany
Meteorites?
Many small stones with 'much copper' fell, Ermendorf. (64)

1677 November 13
Palma, Canaries
Volcano
Eruption to Jan. 1678. (94)

1678
Sachsen-Hausen
Fall
’Shower of fire...burnt half an hour in the streets’. (48)

1678 June 17
Peru
Earthquake
Sea retreated and returned violently 24 hours (?) later. (94)

1678 July 16
Vernagt
Lake burst
Glacier lake burst through ice dam. (85)

1678 August
Herts., England
Crop circle
Oat field 'all on a flame'. Circle by daylight. (135)

1679 June 4
Ararat
Earthquake
Devastating. Flames issued from ground. (94)

1680 January 16
Rostock, Siberia
Meteor impact?
“Great body of fire’ followed by ‘whirlwind’. Many houses shattered. (10)

1680 May
Indonesia
Volcano
Eruption of Krakatoa. (57)

1680 July 18
Massachusetts
Tornado
First definite American tornado. Damage at Cambridge. (91)

1680 October 9
Spain
Earthquake
Earth clefts, Malaga. (94)

1680 November 14
Saxony
Comet
Discovery date. Curved tail 90° long. (13, 23, 29, 75)

1681 February 10
Hungary
Aurora?
“Dragons and burning citadels’ in sky. (50)

1681 July
Cape Cod
Fall
Burning bituminous matter fell on ship in thunderstorm. (42)

1682 May 2
Europe
Earthquake
Switzerland, France, Germany, etc. (94)

1682 June 18
Connecticut
Tornado
Great tree destruction. (91)

1682 September 4
Europe
Halley's Comet
Perihelion date. (29)

1683 March 18
France
Zodiacal Light
Observed by Cassini. (108)

1684 January 1
England
Severe winter
Thames Frost Fair begins. Frozen 2 months. (15, 44, 127)

1684 February 9
English Channel
Sea ice
Ice between Dover and Calais 'joined together'. (95, 96)

1684 December 23
S. England
Blizzard
Many froze to death. (15, 103)

1686
Ternate
Volcano
'Vast shower of ashes’.

1686 January 31
Germany
Fall
Damp black mass fell with snow, Memel. (56, 113)

1686 May
Lisle, Holland
Hailstones
Stones up to 1 lb. fell. (99)

1686 July 9 (or 19)
Leipsic
Meteor?
Fireball half size of Moon motionless 7½ minutes. Refers to trail? (107)

1686 July 29
Venice
Tornado
Track 65 km. long. (111)

1687 July 4
China
Typhoon
Dampier's ship caught. (136)

1687 August 25
Yorkshire
Tornado
De La Pryme observed funnel. (119)

1687 October 20
Lima, Peru
Earthquake
Lima and Callao wrecked. Sea wave. (44)

1688
Boston, Mass.
Coloured snow
Red snow fell. (42)

1688 January
Italy
Earthquake
2,000 killed, Pisticcio. (94)

1688 March 1
Jamaica
Earthquake
Earth waves. (94)

1688 July 10
Smyrna
Earthquake
20,000 killed. (94)

1688 October 30
England
Aurora
Streamers 'warring' in N. (15)

1688 December 20
England
Severe winter
Thames frozen to Feb. 6 1689, frost fair.

1689 November 24
Africa, India
Comet
Tail 60° long.

1690 January 11
England
Gale
Storm of wind and snow for 3 hours. Many killed. (15)

1690 April 5
West Indies
Earthquake
Antigua, St. Kitts, Nevis, Guadeloupe; earth fissures. (118)

1690 October 17
Ireland
Earthquake
Dublin and Kilkenny.

1690 December 23
England
Planet
First observation of Uranus (unrecognised), by Flamsteed. (1)

1691 February 19
Transylvania
Earthquake
3 days' shocks. Earth clefts, trees torn up. (94)

1692
Ile de Fer
Volcano
Off African coast. Eruption lasted 6 weeks.

1692 June 7
Jamaica
Earthquake
Port Royal sank into sea. (44)

1692 September 8
Europe
Earthquake
England, France, Belgium, parts of Germany. (75)

1693
Spice Islands
Volcano
Lake of fire 'took possession of' Sorea Island, inhabitants fled. (148)

1693 January 9
Italy
Earthquake
Calabria and Sicily, 93,000 killed. Felt France, Germany, etc. (100)

1693 January 13
Hekla, Iceland
Volcano
Ash fall, Norway and Scotland. Pumice carried to Faeroes. (19, 137)

1694 April 22
Wales
Anomalous phenomena
'Fiery exhalation' rose from sea. Grass tainted, cattle killed. (7, 15)

1694 August 7
Devon, England
Tornado
Tornadic waterspout at Topsham. (79)

1694 September 8
Italy
Earthquake
3,571 killed, Avellino. (47)

1694 November 2
Scotland
Sandstorm
Culbin village lost for 230 years. (86)

1695
Iceland
Sea ice
Whole island surrounded. (55, 87)

1695
Ireland
Fall
Clammy yellow substance fell in showers. (48)

1695 January 29
England
Cold winter
Frost and continual snow 5 weeks to date. (15)

1695 June
Bohemia
Summer cold
3 intense frosts. Famine. (87)

1695 October
Europe
Severe winter
Frost in Germany began in October, continued to April. (99)

1695 October 28
Brazil
Comet
Tail 40° long.

1697 May 4
Hertfordshire
Hail
Stones 14 inches round. Several killed. (8, 59)

1697 May 10
Wales to Lancashire
Hail
Lambs, poultry and a dog killed by hailstones; several persons injured. (152)

1697 October 27
Athlone, Ireland
Ball lightning
‘Round body of fire’ fell on powder magazine, explosion wrecked town. (12)

1697 November 20
New England
Severe winter
Hardest of century: 31 snowstorms, November 20 -April 9. (130)

1698 January 29
England
Severe winter
Ice 8 inches thick on Suffolk coast. (128)

1698 May 3
Norfolk
Late snow
Fell from 2 to 6 pm. (83)

1698 May 18
Switzerland
Meteorite
‘Heavy stone’ fell at Walkringen. (69)

1698 June 19
Ecuador
Volcano
Mt. Caruairazo 'fell in’. (42)

1699 January 5
Java
Earthquake
Batavia wrecked. (74)

1700
Taal, Phillipines
Volcano
Mountain 9,000 feet high wrecked by explosion. ‘Doubtful tradition’. (148)

1700 (c.)
Mediterranean
Volcano
Tradition of a volcanic island between Sicily and Pantellaria. (122)

1700
Jamaica
Meteorite?
Fiery body fell, Many holes in ground. (112)

1700 January 27
Oregon and Washington
Earthquake
Possible date of great earthquake and tsunami. (116)

1700 May 1
Styria
Lightning
7 persons killed in chapel on summit of Mt. St. Ursula by upward-striking lightning.